TRANSFORM911Resource Hub

 

Related Empirical Research

Author Title Year Citation Summary Category1 Category2 Category3 Topic1 Topic2 Topic3 Initials QAed Additional Citations Type
Eric Rafla-Yuan et al. Decoupling Crisis Response from Policing – A Step Toward Equitable Psychiatric Emergency Services 2021 Rafla-Yuan, Eric, Divya K. Chhabra, and Michael O. Mensah. “Decoupling Crisis Response from Policing—A Step Toward Equitable Psychiatric Emergency Services.” The New England Journal of Medicine, (May 2021): 1769-1773. The authors recommend shifting the obligation of mental health emergency response from law enforcement to clinical teams in order to advance parity and outcomes for all patients, and particularly for Black patients. They argue that unarmed clinicians must lead crisis response teams, given that no amount of training for police in de-escalation and bias can reverse a history of racism. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History   Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Reducing police response CM     Scholarly  
Kim Rigden Stress Management: Stress and the 911 Dispatcher: AEDR Journal 2017 Rigden, Kim. “Stress Management: Stress and the 911 Dispatcher: AEDR Journal.” Stress Management: Stress and the 911 Dispatcher | AEDR Journal, December 19, 2017. https://www.aedrjournal.org/stress-management-stress-and-the-911-dispatcher. This article discusses the various aspects of the  9-1-1 call center environment that results in high stress levels within 9-1-1 dispatchers. This stress can be attributed to many things, but usually centers around performing emotional labor, processing their own trauma from receiving calls, and the buildup on stress over time. As a result, the author suggests investing in self care, using the STRESS (Sensible Eating, Time to Enjoy Life, Rest and Relaxation, Exercise and Education, Social Support of Family, Colleagues and Friends, Satisfying Expression of Self and Spirituality) acronym.  PST Professionalism and Supports     Behavioral Health Call taker support   OF     Scholarly  
Erik C. Cerbulis Job Attitudes of 911 Professionals: A Case Study of Turnover Intentions and Concerns Among Local Governments Throughout Central Florida 2001 “Cerbulis, Erik C.. “”Job Attitudes of 911 Professionals: A Case Study of Turnover Intentions and Concerns Among Local Governments Throughout

Central Florida””; (2001). HIM 1990-2015. 225. https://stars.library.ucf.edu/honorstheses1990-2015/225
The results of a case study indicated that 911 professionals, regardless of position, show a high satisfaction for their jobs despite problems that may exist. It is necessary for both managers and supervisors to show appreciation towards their employees, highlighting positive actions rather than just negative actions. In addition, agencies have made a concerted effort to increase starting pay for new-hires, yet have not adjusted veteran employee pay rates accordingly. Other areas of focus by management should be training programs, hiring practices, and advancement opportunities for qualified employees. PST Professionalism and Supports     Call taker support     OF     Scholarly  
Labor Relations Information System Answering Calls For 16 Hours? Staffing Issues, Mandatory Overtime Stresses County’s 911 Dispatch Cente 2019 “”Answering Calls for 16 Hours? Staffing Issues, Mandatory Overtime Stresses County's 911 Dispatch Center.” Labor Relations Information

System, July 9, 2019. https://lris.com/2019/07/09/answering-calls-for-16-hours-staffing-issues-mandatory-overtime-stresses-countys-911- 

dispatch-center/.”
This article discusses the long term issues with having a lack of call dispatchers. This usually manifests in long overtime shifts, which leads to burnout and emotional fatigue. Overtime is to be expected, but due to the nature of the job, steps must be taken to ensure the emotional health of dispatchers and proper compensation is issued.  PST Professionalism and Supports     Behavioral Health Call taker support   OF     Scholarly  
CritiCall Team How Much Does It Cost to Train a Dispatcher 2020 “CritiCall. “How Much Does It Cost to Train a Dispatcher? " Criticall 911.” CritiCall 911 Dispatcher & Emergency Calltaker Testing Software,

October 19, 2020. https://criticall911.com/how-much-does-it-cost-to-train-a-dispatcher/.
This post calculates the total cost of training a new 9-1-1 dispatchers. Taking into account  the payment of the trainer, trainee, overtime costs, and other miscellaneous costs, the total will come out to be $52,815. PST Professionalism and Supports     Budget     OF     Scholarly  
Heidi Kevoe-Feldman and Anita Pomerantz Critical timing of actions for transferring 911 calls in a wireless call center 2018 Kevoe-Feldman, Heidi, and Anita Pomerantz. “Critical timing of actions for transferring 911 calls in a wireless call center.” Discourse Studies 20, no. 4 (2018): 488-505. The analysis in this article considers how dispatchers in a 911 wireless call center direct callers’ orientations from one possible trajectory of action (e.g. moving to close) to keeping the caller engaged and prepared to speak with a second dispatcher. They describe how dispatchers deploy two distinct actions, a directing action and an informing action, timed at a precise moment to execute successful transfers. The analysis presents largely unexplored features of the call transfer environment, including dispatchers’ management of callers’ expectations and how the transfer phase contributes to a reshaping of the overall structural organization of a 911 call. PST Professionalism and Supports Call Handling Operations   Call taker procedures     OF     Scholarly  
Benjamin Trachik, Madeline Marks, Clint Bowers, Greg Scott, Chris Olola, Isabel Gardett Is Dispatching to a Traffic Accident as Stressful as Being in One? Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Occupational Burnout in 911 Emergency Dispatchers 2015 “Trachik, B., Marks, M., Bowers, C., Scott, G., Olola, C., and Gardett, I.(2015). "Is Dispatching to a Traffic Accident as Stressful as Being in One?

Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Occupational Burnout in 911 Emergency Dispatchers.” Annals of Emergency Dispatch &

Response, 3(1).”
This paper reports on a study taking an initial step to investigate rates of Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress and Occupational Burnout. 205 emergency dispatchers completed a survey while considering their occupational experiences and recent dispatch call history. Although the results of this study are exploratory, rates of these three outcomes exceeded that of the general population and were related to several job-specific factors that could potentially be modified to reduce dispatcher stress. Additional emergency call specific factors were also examined to uncover the potential contribution to negative stress-related outcomes. Data Research & KPIs PST Professionalism and Supports   Call taker support Behavioral Health   OF     Scholarly  
Jay R. Shively Emergency (911) dispatcher decision making: Ecological display development. 1995 Shively, R. Jay. “Emergency (911) dispatcher decision making: Ecological display development”; In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 506-510. Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 1995. Emergency dispatchers must make complex life or death decisions under extreme time pressure. Using Ecological Task Analysis (ETA), a technique normally applied to aerospace human factors problems, a new display was designed that would better assist their decision making task. The major design constraints were identified to be the beat number and priority of incidents, available units, and the spatial relationship of the those units to the incident. Using these and other less formal factors, a GUI interface was designed and an evaluation was conducted at the Richmond, CA police dispatch center.  PST Professionalism and Supports Data Research & KPIs   Call taker procedures     OF     Scholarly  
Gorkem Sariyer, Mustafa Gokalp Ataman, Serhat Akay, Turhan Sofuogia, and Zeyneb Sofuogia An analysis of Emergency Medical Services demand: Time of day, day of the week, and location in the city 2017 “Sariyer, Gorkem, Mustafa Gokalp Ataman, Serhat Akay, Turhan Sofuoglu, and Zeynep Sofuoglu. “”An analysis of Emergency Medical Services

demand: Time of day, day of the week, and location in the city.”” Turkish journal of emergency medicine 17, no. 2 (2017): 42-47.”
The analyses showed that demand for EMS varied within different time periods of day, and according to day of the week. For the night period, demand was higher at the weekend compared to weekdays, whereas for daytime hours, demand was higher during the week. For weekdays, a statistically significant relation was observed between the call distribution of morning and evening periods. It was also observed that the percentage of demand changed according to location.  Data Research & KPIs Call Handling Operations   Call taker procedures     OF     Scholarly  
Balakrishan S. Manoj and Alexandra Hubenko Baker Communication challenges in emergency response 2007 “Manoj, Balakrishan S., and Alexandra Hubenko Baker. "Communication challenges in emergency response." Communications of the ACM 50,

no. 3 (2007): 51-53.”
The communication challenges in emergency response go far beyond simple interoperability issues. Based on the research, practical observation of first responder exercises and drills, and workshop discussions, this paper identified three categories of communication challenges: technological, sociological, and organizational. These three major areas are key to developing and maintaining healthy and effective disaster communication systems.  Call Handling Operations     Call taker support Call taker procedures   OF     Scholarly  
Jessica L Soria Deselms 911, What’s My Emergency? Emotional Labor, Work-Related Rumination, and Strain Outcomes in Emergency Medical Dispatchers. 2016 “Deselms, Jessica L. 911, What’s My Emergency? Emotional Labor, Work-Related Rumination, and Strain Outcomes in Emergency Medical

Dispatchers. Minnesota State University, Mankato, 2016. https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/etds/632/
The work of Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs) is filled with a variety of stressors, including “emotional labor.” Despite research on emotional labor, few studies have quantitatively examined this construct within EMDs. Compared to the plethora of emotional labor literature that focuses on the display of positive emotions, EMDs are required to suppress or neutralize any negative reactions they may experience. Hence, this study was concerned with the further examination of emotional labor, physical health outcomes, burnout, and job satisfaction in a unique population. PST Professionalism and Supports Data Research & KPIs   Call taker support     OF     Scholarly  
Hendrika Meishchke, Ian Painter, Michelle Lilly, Randal Beaton, Debra Revere, Becca Calhoun, and J. Baseman Hendrika Meishchke, Ian Painter, Michelle Lilly, Randal Beaton, Debra Revere, Becca Calhoun, and J. Baseman 2015 “Meischke, Hendrika, Ian Painter, Michelle Lilly, Randal Beaton, Debra Revere, Becca Calhoun, and J. Baseman. "An exploration of sources,

symptoms and buffers of occupational stress in 9-1-1 emergency call centers." Ann Emerg Dispatch Response 3, no. 2 (2015): 28-35.”
This is one of the first studies to explore the inter-relationships among job stressors, potential risk and protective factors, and symptoms of stress in 9-1-1 telecommunicators. Overcommitment was positively associated with higher stress scores while mindfulness—the ability to pay attention to, recognize, and process one’s experiences and emotions without judgment and in the moment—was negatively associated with higher symptoms of stress scores after all covariates were considered. Findings suggest that the associations between stress, overcommitment and mindfulness provide guidance regarding the benefits of providing mindfulness-based interventions to assist this workforce in managing stress. Data Research & KPIs PST Professionalism and Supports   Behavioral Health Call taker support   OF     Scholarly  
Hollywood, John S., and Zev Winkelman Improving Information-Sharing Across Law Enforcement: Why Can’t We Know? 2015 Hollywood, John S., and Zev Winkelman. “Improving Information-Sharing Across Law Enforcement: Why Can’t We Know?” In Improving Information-Sharing Across Law Enforcement: Why Can’t We Know?, 1-32. RAND Corporation, 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt19rmdmz.1 This report draws from previous research to survey the history of information technology used within emergency response systems over time and outlines related issues, recommendations, and progress indicators. The main issues outlined include the lack of standards development and usage, misunderstandings and knowledge gaps between practitioners and developers, and lack of incentives and enforcement of information sharing. Governance     information sharing interaction between law enforcement agencies   OF     Scholarly  
James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley  Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services 2014 James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley. “Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services.” Journal of Law, Technology, & the Internet. Vol. 5. 2014. https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1067&context=jolti This article argues that there are many issues with the current sharing of regulatory power under a federal-state NG911 funding arrangement. The authors argue that the federal government must take action to ensure a timely and efficient implementation of NG911, including that Congress must allow states to collect more 911 funds and receive more federal 911 grant funds by establishing an enforceable minimum floor of state NG911 services and impose minimum technical and performance standards. Governance Call Handling Operations NG911 budget   OF     Scholarly  
Linda K. Moore Emergency Communications: The Future of 911 2010 Linda K. Moore. “Emergency Communications: The Future of 911.” The Congressional Research Service, 2010.   https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CKAvX1lHK2wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=911 +emergency+call+center+infrastructure&ots=5-4GEaqLFn&sig=sEsBqDbEb-B795k9dWnWkD3utGU#v=onepage&q&f=false This report provides a summary of 911 legislation and policy between 1999 and 2008, a time period in which NG911 became increasingly relevant as a result of new technological advances. Some of the legislation highlighted includes: The Enhance Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-494.) which addressed issues of compliance, coverage in rural areas, and the use of fees levied by states and localities to cover rising administrative costs and the Net 911 Improvement Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-298.) This report also outlines recommendations for improving funding to PSAPS, the potential role of the Department of Homeland Security, and future policy goals related to NG911.  Governance 911 History   NG911 911 system legislation OF     Scholarly  
Steven C. Sharpe 9-1-1 Leadership: Perceptions of Evidence-Based Quality Improvement 2018 Steven C. Sharpe. “9-1-1 Leadership: Perceptions of Evidence-Based Quality Improvement.” St. John Fischer College Digital Publications, 2018. https://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1356&context=education_etd This dissertation examines how New York PSAP leaders can support effective implementation of quality improvement programs in light of the gaps in legislation. Challenges to quality improvement that were identified include time, staffing, and funding. Recommendations to address these issues include focused efforts on securing buy-in from stakeholders, building trust as leaders, and the use of local data to support decision-making processes. Governance     quality improvement budget   OF     Scholarly  
James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services 2014 James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley. “Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services.” Journal of Law, Technology, & the Internet. Vol. 5. 2014. https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1067&context=jolti This article argues that there are many issues with the current sharing of regulatory power under a federal-state NG911 funding arrangement. The authors argue that the federal government must take action to ensure a timely and efficient implementation of NG911, including that Congress must allow states to collect more 911 funds and receive more federal 911 grant funds by establishing an enforceable minimum floor of state NG911 services and impose minimum technical and performance standards. Governance     NG911 Budget   OF     Scholarly  
Susan Caroline Young Factors Affecting the Adoption of New Technology: the Case of Government 311 Call Centers 2015 Susan Carolina Young. “Factors Affecting the Adoption of New Technology: the Case of Government 311 Call Centers.” PhD Diss., (Florida International University, 2015.) https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3015&context=etd Using an exploratory research approach, this dissertation aims to identify the factors involved in municipal governments’ decisions to, or not to, adopt 311 call centers. Their findings suggest that the most significant factors include managerial support, financial constraints, organizational responsiveness, and technological challenges. Barriers to adoption include lack of demand from citizens, startup costs, and annual operating costs. Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance 988-211-311 Call taker procedures Budget OF     Scholarly  
Kara Rosenberg Cain Chapter 17 to the Rescue: Voice Over Internet Protocol to Aid the Health of the 911 Emergency Fund 2009 Kara Rosenberg Cain. “Chapter 17 to the Rescue: Voice Over Internet Protocol to Aid the Health of the 911 Emergency Fund.” University of the Pacific Scholarly Commons, 2009. https://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1066&context=greensheet “This journal discusses how the introduction of VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technology necessitated an increase in 911 funding. In California, legislators passed S.B. 1040, which declared that “”The furnishing of emergency telephone service is in the public interest and should be supported fairly and equitably by every telephone corporation and every provider

 of telephone quality communication…”” This law addresses two major concerns: first, the growing inequity that stems from VoIP providers not being mandated to contribute to the 911 fund and second, it addresses potential liability stemming from the previous law’s definition of “”toll telephone service.”””
Governance Call Handling Operations   budget limitations of current legislation   OF     Scholarly  
Randy Ross Closing the 911 Funding Gap: Increasing Revenues for 911 Emergency Dispatch Centers 2020 Randy Ross. “Closing the 911 Funding Gap: Increasing Revenues for 911 Emergency Dispatch Centers. Certified Public Manager Applied Research 1, (1). https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/cpmar/vol1/iss1/4 This paper addresses the 911 service funding gap, explaining that the revenue used to fund 911 services consists almost entirely of fees and surcharges on wireline, wireless, and VoIP telephone lines. Despite generating billions of dollars annually, 911 service revenues still typically fall short of expected costs. The author urges the federal government to update the current funding framework, give additional regulatory power to the states, and to make more grant funding available. Governance     budget funding shortage   OF     Scholarly  
Erwin A. Blackstone, Andrew J. Buck, and Simon Hakim The Economics of Emergency Response 2007 Erwin A. Blackstone, Andrew J. Buck, and Simon Hakim. “The Economics of Emergency Response.” Springer 40, (4). 2007. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25474342 This journal discusses strategies to decrease the 911 services funding shortage. As of 2007, the federal first responder funding was estimated to be $98 billion below the minimum required level for the period of 2005-2010. This shortfall can be addressed by eliminating non-public good services, initiating public-private partnerships, and contracting out other public services. Governance     funding shortage     OF     Scholarly  

Other Resources

This database includes action toolkits, popular articles, policy recommendations, reports, and other materials developed by 911 researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers. You may filter the entries by topic or tag. Some resources, particularly newspaper or magazine articles, may require a subscription to access.

Author Title Year Citation Summary Category1 Category2 Category3 Topic1 Topic2 Topic3 Initials QAed Additional Citations Type
NA Dial 211 for Essential Community Services 2019 “Dial 211 for Essential Community Services.” fcc.gov. The Federal Communications Commission, December 31, 2019. https://www.fcc.gov/consumers/guides/dial-211-essential-community-services This webpage describes the structure and function of 211 and also describes the types of referrals typically made by 211 call takers. 911 Hotline Alternatives Call Handling Operations   988-211-311 Call taker procedures   AS Y   Resource
Kevin Baldwin and Shila Rene Hawk Report of Analysis of 911 Calls for Service to Inform Pre-Arrest Diversion and Other Expansion Efforts 2020 Baldwin, K., and Shila Rene Hawk. “Report of Analysis of 911 Calls for Service to Inform Pre-Arrest Diversion and Other Expansion Efforts.” Atlanta: Applied Research Services, Inc. October 14,
2020. https://uchicago.app.box.com/file/825372305397
This report presents the findings of a study which examined over 3.4 million calls to Atlanta PD. Call data from the CAD system and incident level data from the police department provided the data to be studied. After briefly
introducing the history of 911, this report presents an in-depth analysis of the volume and types of calls made to 911 in APD’s jurisdiction.
Data Research & KPIs 911 History     Reducing police response   AS Y   Resource
Washington State Legislators Implementing the National 988 System to Enhance and Expand Behavioral Health Crisis Response and Suicide Prevention Services 2021 Washington House of Representatives. Implementing the National 988 System to Enhance and Expand Behavioral Health Crisis Response and Suicide Prevention Services. HB 1477. Introduced in House February 3, 2021. This bill requires implementation of the national 988 system to enhance and expand behavioral health crisis response and suicide prevention services in Washington. Governance 911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Behavioral Health   AS Y   Resource
Utah State Legislators 988 Mental Health Crisis Assistance 2021 Utah State Senate. 988 Mental Health Crisis Assistance. SB 0155. Introduced in Senate 2021, general session. https://le.utah.gov/~2021/bills/static/SB0155.html This bill creates the Statewide Behavioral Health Crisis Response Account and the 988 Mutual Health Crisis Assistance Task Force. These bills would increase funding for social services and behavioral health initiatives in Utah. Governance 911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Budget Behavioral Health AS Y   Resource
U.S Congress National Suicide Designation Act of 2020 2020 U.S. Congress. Senate. National Suicide Designation Act of 2020. SB 2661. 116th Cong., 1st sess. Introduced in Senate October 22, 2019. This act designates 988 as the universal phone number for national suicide prevention and mental health crisis hotline systems. Governance 911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Behavioral Health   AS Y   Resource
NA Rep. Smith Introduces Bill to Divert Nonviolent 911 Calls to Specialized Responders, Fund Community-Based Public Safety Programs 2021 2021. “Rep. Smith Introduces Bill to Divert Nonviolent 911 Calls to Specialized Responders, Fund Community-Based Public Safety Programs.” March 11,
2021. https://adamsmith.house.gov/press-releases?id=48F0683B-1928-474E-829F-AF751E2DF17C
This press release explains the recent 911 Diversion to Unarmed Personnel Act. If passed, this bill would provide funding for unarmed 911 response teams that divert non-violent 911 calls to specialized service providers instead of law
enforcement. Representative Smith, supporter of the bill, notes the need to involve social workers, medical professionals, and peer support counselors instead of police.
Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Civilian Response Team Low-level crimes Reducing police response AS Y   Resource
Alabama State Legislators Creating the Study Commission on the 9-8-8 Comprehensive Behavioral Health Crisis Communication System 2021 Alabama State House of Representatives. House Joint Resolution. Creating the Study Commission on the 9-8-8 Comprehensive Behavioral Health Crisis Communication System. HJR 168. Introduced in House April 1, 2021.  This resolved bill requires that 988 be nationally implemented as a suicide hotline by July 16, 2022. This bill also requires that all Alabamians receive consistent and effective behavioral health crisis services and seeks to develop
and maintain a statewide crisis system.
Governance 911 Hotline Alternatives   Behavioral Health 988-211-311 Health care continuum AS Y   Resource
Karon, S. Gault, E., Pfefferle, S., et al.  Approaches to Early Jail Diversion: Collaborations and Innovations 2019 Karon, S. Gault, E., Pfefferle, S., et al. “Approaches to Early Jail Diversion: Collaborations and Innovations.” Abt Associates, July 2019. https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/262096/EarlyJail.pdf This report, presented to the HHS, attempts to add to existing knowledge on the Sequential Intercept Model (SIM) for jail diversion. Using SIM, the authors attempt to identify points, or ‘intercepts’ along the criminal justice
continuum where there are potential interventions to divert individuals (such as those with behavioral health or substance abuse disorders) away from the criminal-legal system.
Other     Reducing police response Behavioral Health   AS Y   Resource
National Alliance on Mental Health Divert to What? Community Services that Enhance Diversion 2017 National Alliance on Mental Health. “Divert to What? Community Services that Enhance Diversion.”
2017. https://www.nami.org/Support-Education/Publications-Reports/Public-Policy-Reports/Divert-to-What-Community-Services-that-Enhance-Diversion/DiverttoWhat.pdf 
This document aims to help communities identify gaps in their existing social service system or “mental health ecosystem.” in an effort to divert individuals with behavioral health challenges away from the criminal-legal system. It
describes the two main aspects of mental health care and lists the services and resources that should be involved in each to ensure a healthy ‘ecosystem.’
Other     Behavioral Health Reducing police response   AS Y   Resource
Chapman, M., Nadel, M., Swan, H., et al. Reimagining America’s Crisis Response System for Vulnerable Populations 2020 Chapman, M., Nadel, M., Swan, H., et al. “Reimagining America’s Crisis Response System for Vulnerable Populations.” Abt Associates, September
2020. https://www.abtassociates.com/files/insights/white-papers/2020/crisis-response_knowledge-gaps-wp_v2.pdf 
This white paper addresses gaps in current knowledge on alternative crisis response systems and identifies areas for investment to ensure that the needs of vulnerable populations are being met. The authors provide evidence to support
the implementation of first-responder led diversion programs and provides recommendations for future research and investment areas.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs   Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Reducing police response AS Y   Resource
Treatment Advocacy Center The Role and Impact of Law Enforcement in Transporting Individuals with Severe Mental Illness, A National Study 2019 Treatment Advocacy Center. “The Role and Impact of Law Enforcement in Transporting Individuals with Severe Mental Illness, A National Study.” Treatment Advocacy Center, May
2019. https://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/storage/documents/Road-Runners.pdf
This report presents the findings of a study on the role and impact of officers in transporting individuals with severe mental illness. The background section describes the various methods by which transport is carried out and the
regulations that govern these interactions. Results indicate that police transporting patients adds significant cost to police departments, increases the wait time for individuals in crisis, and often leads to individuals being released
without proper treatment. 
Data Research & KPIs     Behavioral Health Health care continuum Budget AS Y   Resource
Rave Mobile Safety Survey Finds Americans are Concerned About Mental Health and Want Public Safety Agencies to Improve Response to Mental Health Crises 2021 Rave Mobile Safety. “Survey Finds Americans are Concerned About Mental Health and Want Public Safety Agencies to Improve Response to Mental Health Crises.” Business Wire, May 11,
2021. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210511005340/en/Survey-Finds-Americans-Are-Concerned-About-Mental-Health-and-Want-Public-Safety-Agencies-to-Improve-Response-to-Mental-Health-Crises
Rave Mobile Safety recently released its 2021 Mental Health and Emergency Response Survey results. This article describes its findings. Key takeaways: Americans’ level of concern for mental health has increased over the past year and
many respondents worry that mental health crises will impact their safety as the pandemic comes to an end. Additionally, respondents indicated that they believe public safety agencies need to improve their responses to calls regarding
emergency mental health crises. Areas of improvement include: increased training in mental health response, dispatching mental health professionals, and access to mental health histories for 911 calls.
Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Behavioral Health Public opinion Civilian Response Team AS Y   Resource
Adam Boehler and Calder Lynch Medicaid Opportunities in the Emergency Triage, Treat, and Transport (ET3) Model 2019 Boehler, A. and Lynch, C. “Medicaid Opportunities in the Emergency Triage, Treat, and Transport (ET3) Model.” 2019. https://www.hhs.gov/guidance/sites/default/files/hhs-guidance-documents/cib080819-3_16.pdf The ET3 Model is a payment model designed to reduce unnecessary transport to the emergency department. This document summarizes current studies on the model and provides information to states interested in designing ET3 interventions.
Such information includes expected cost benefits of providing “treatment in place” rather than emergency transport for Medicaid participants and evidence for the success of the model.
Other     Budget On-scene response   AS Y   Resource
City of Chicago Committee on Health and Human Relations Call for Development of Chicago Crisis Response and Care System 2020 City of Chicago Committee on Health and Human Relations. “Call for Development of Chicago Crisis Response and Care System.” September 9, 2020. 
https://pic.datamade.us/chicago/document/?filename=Or2020-242&document_url=http://ord.legistar.com/Chicago/attachments/388fca6e-9fe7-4d45-a450-54c76c107464.pdf
This document outlines the development of a Chicago Crisis Response and Care System within the CDPHs 2021 budget. This proposal would create 24 hour crisis response teams throughout Chicago, composed of a clinical social workers and an
EMT or RN, dispatched from a network of public community mental health centers. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance   Budget Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team AS Y   Resource
Sam Tabachnik How do cops spend their time? As Denver debates police funding, these numbers offer an inside look 2020 Sam Tabachnik. “How do cops spend their time? As Denver debates police funding, these numbers offer an inside look.” The Denver Post, September 6,
2020. https://www.denverpost.com/2020/09/06/denver-police-officer-time-job-funding-data/ 
This article described the findings of a study on Denver’s calls for service as well as how much time officers spent on each call. The information presented indicates that only 14% of these calls were for violent crimes, and suggests
that police response in many cases is unnecessary. This study comes in the midst of Denver’s budget crisis and heated debates on police funding.
Data Research & KPIs     Budget Police reform Reducing police response AS Y   Resource
Steve Crabtree  Most Americans Say Policing Needs ‘Major Changes’ 2020 Steve Crabtree. “Most Americans Say Policing Needs ‘Major Changes.” Gallup, July 22, 2020. https://news.gallup.com/poll/315962/americans-say-policing-needs-major-changes.aspx This article reports the findings of a recent study on Americans views on the need for change in policing. Key takeaways are that 58% of Americans believe policing needs major changes, almost all respondents support increased focus on
accountability and community relations, and about half of respondents support reducing police funding (however there are large gaps between race and party affiliation.) 
Data Research & KPIs     Budget Reducing police response Public opinion AS Y   Resource
Julia Layton How 911 Works 2021 Julia Layton. “How 911 Works.” people.howstuffworks.com. How Stuff Works, Janurary 6, 2021. https://people.howstuffworks.com/9-1-1.htm This article explains how both basic and enhanced 911 systems function. This explanation includes descriptions of common 911 equipment and technology as well as common issues with both the system and user errors. Technology     Accessibility Caller protocol   AS Y   Resource
APCO International Crisis Intervention Techniques And Call Handling Procedures for Public Safety Telecommunicators n.d APCO International. “Crisis Intervention Techniques And Call Handling Procedures for Public Safety Telecommunicators.”APCO International, n.d.
https://www.apcointl.org/download/crisis-intervention-techniques-and-call-handling-procedures-for-public-safety-telecommunicators/ 
This document provides an overview of the standards to be followed by PSTs and by their employers.Topics include standards on mental health training, de-escalation techniques, and agency responsibilities to PSTs. PST Professionalism and Supports Governance   Call taker support Behavioral Health   AS Y   Resource
Audrey Fraizer Management: 911 for Emergency Dispatchers 2019 Audrey Fraizer. “Management: 911 for Emergency Dispatchers.” icma.org. International City/County Management Association, May 3, 2019. https://icma.org/articles/pm-magazine/management-911-emergency-dispatchers  This article describes the tendency of 911 dispatchers to develop mental and emotional health disorders, namely PTSD, burnout, and depression. Fraizer argues, based on findings of a study by the San Bernardino County PD, that
work-related factors have a strong influence over health related outcomes. She suggests ways to mitigate the impact of these work-related stressors, such as creating a working environment in which there is mutual respect, standards and
protocols in place to guide call takers and avoid lawsuits, and where there is the ability to recognize the symptoms of mental and emotional health struggles, as well as a program in place to address them.
PST Professionalism and Supports     Call taker support Behavioral Health   AS Y   Resource
Colin Wood What is 311? 2016 Wood, Colin. “What is 311?” govtech.com. Government Technology, August 2, 2016. https://www.govtech.com/dc/articles/what-is-311.html Briefly describes the history of 311 as well as its current uses and the ways that technology has changed them. The article also introduces the idea of “mobile reporting apps” as an extension to, or replacement of 311. 911 Hotline Alternatives Technology   Caller protocol 988-211-311 Accessibility AS Y   Resource
Katie McEntire What is 311 and When Should I use it? 2021 McEntire, Katie. “What is 311 and When Should I Use it?” safewise.com. Safewise, April 29, 2021. https://www.safewise.com/blog/what-is-311/ This blog post describes the most common uses of 311, the structure of the 311 system, and lists all major cities with a 311 program. The author urges callers to consider who might be harmed by police involvement before they decide
whether to call 911, 311, or not call at all.
911 Hotline Alternatives     Caller protocol 988-211-311 Reducing police response AS Y   Resource
NA Cortez Masto Introduces Comprehensive Mental Health Legislation 2020 Cortez Masto Introduces Comprehensive Mental Health Legislation, 2020.https://www.cortezmasto.senate.gov/news/press-releases/cortez-masto-introduce-comprehensive-mental-health-legislation- This press release describes a bill recently introduced by Nevada senator, Catherine Cortez Masto. The Behavioral Health Crisis Services Expansion Act would direct HHS to define national standards for behavioral health crisis
care, expand coverage of mental health services, and provide resources to communities that are expanding or implementing new behavioral health crisis services to meet local needs. 
Governance     Health care continuum Behavioral Health Budget AS Y   Resource
Chelst, D., et, al. Police Data Analysis Report 2020 Chelst, D., et, al. Police Data Analysis Report. Oakland: Center for Public Safety Management, LLC. December 2020. https://cao-94612.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/CPSM-Oakland-CFS-Report-Dec-2020.pdf This report presents detailed data on Oakland PD calls for service in order to help determine what types of calls may be best handled by police alternatives. The four most common reasons for calls include investigation calls, noise
disturbances, general calls, and traffic calls. Additionally, this report presents data on how Oakland police officers spend their time on the clock, outside of responding to calls. Together these pieces of information help describe how
best to reallocate resources within the department and related social services.
Data Research & KPIs     Low-level crimes Reducing police response On-scene response AS Y   Resource
Council on Criminial Justice (CCJ) Shifting Police Functions: Policy Assessment 2021 Council on Criminal Justice. “Shifting Police Functions.” May 2021. https://assets.foleon.com/eu-west-2/uploads-7e3kk3/41697/pdf_-_shifting_police_functions.ddfef7991278.pdf This policy assessment describes current practices in policing and the ways in which they fall short of the needs of the population. The authors outline three strategies to address this: training the police to interact with people in
crisis, implementing co-responder models, and offloading police functions to non-police response teams. Next they describe necessary enhancements to 911 call-taking, triage, and dispatch procedures as indicated by the results of their
calls for service data analysis. Some of the expected impacts of these interventions include: preventing the misuse of force, enhancing transparency and accountability, strengthening community trust, reducing racial disparities, ensuring
officer safety, and promoting public safety.
Call Handling Operations     Police reform Call taker procedures Co-responder program AS Y   Resource
David M. Kennedy State Violence, Legitimacy, and the Path to True Public Safety 2020 David M. Kennedy. “State Violence, Legitimacy, and the Path to True Public Safety.” Niskanan Center, July 8,
2020. https://www.niskanencenter.org/state-violence-legitimacy-and-the-path-to-true-public-safety/
Kennedy introduces the issue of state legitimacy and describes how this lack of trust in police stems from a long history of police violence and misconduct. He argues that this proves the need for defunding the police and cites
community policing initiatives like CAHOOTS, “Advance Peace,” the PIVOT initiative, and others as examples of how this defunding could take place. 
911 History Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Police reform Budget Civilian Response Team AS Y   Resource
Colleen Long and Hannah Fingerhut AP-NORC poll: Nearly all in US back criminal justice reform 2020 Colleen Long and Hannah Fingerhut. “AP-NORC poll: Nearly all in US back criminal justice reform.” apnews.com.
Associated Press, June 23, 2020. https://apnews.com/article/police-us-news-ap-top-news-politics-kevin-richardson-ffaa4bc564afcf4a90b02f455d8fdf03
The article describes the findings of a poll conducted by the Associated Press NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. The poll asks questions to the American public that are meant to gauge public opinion on police reform. Findings
suggest that the majority of Americans support some level of police reform. The level of support of police system overhaul tended to map along partisan lines.
Data Research & KPIs     Police reform Public opinion   AS Y   Resource
James Doyle Tackling Racism in Courts and Police: Start with the System 2020 James Doyle. “Tackling Racism in Courts and Police: Start with the System. thecrimereport.org. The Crime Report, September 24,
2020. https://thecrimereport.org/2020/09/24/tackling-racism-in-courts-and-police-start-with-the-system/
Doyle uses the example of Carlos Ingram-Lopez, who died at the hands of Tucson police in 2020, to explain the difference between systemic and systematic racism. Officials suspect that a language barrier likely played a large role in
the event. Doyle maintains that looking for one “systematically racist actor,” to punish in lieu of this tragedy is ineffective in creating meaningful change. Instead, he notes that looking “systemically” instead, allows police departments
to identify issues with individuals from various roles: the dispatcher, the training officers, HR, and the officials who assessed the departments language needs. He stresses the importance of using negative events as a learning experience,
rather than simply punishing the officers responsible. He commends Tucson for convening the SERB in response to this event
Other     Police use of force Police reform   AS Y   Resource
Leonard Sipes Per Gallup, The Majority of Americans Rate Law Enforcement Encounters as Positive, Respectful, and Fair 2020 Leonard Sipes. “Per Gallup, The Majority of Americans Rate Law Enforcement Encounters as Positive, Respectful, and Fair.” lawofficer.com. Law Officer, September 10, 2020.
https://www.crimeinamerica.net/per-gallup-the-majority-of-americans-rate-police-encounters-as-positive-respectful-and-fair/
Rather than poll a sample of all Americans, Gallup polled Americans who have had at least one encounter with the police. Results indicate that 86% of respondents said they were treated with respect, including most hispanic and Black
individuals. 89% of respondents said they were treated fairly, also including most hispanic and Black individuals. However importantly, the findings also state that while 56% of white adults say they have a “great deal” or “quite a lot” of
confidence in police, only 19% of Black adults feel the same.
Data Research & KPIs     Public opinion On-scene response   AS Y   Resource
U.S Congress H.R 1859: 911 Diversion to Un-armed Personnel Act of 2021 2021 U.S. Congress. House. 911 Diversion to Un-armed Personnel Act of 2021. HR 1859. 117th Cong., 1st sess. Introduced in House March 11, 2021. Democratic Representative Adam Smith introduced H.R 1859 in March 2021. If passed, this bill would authorize grants to states, territories, and tribal governments to dispatch unarmed, specialized healthcare or social workers to respond
to non-violent 911 calls.
Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Low-level crimes Civilian Response Team Budget AS Y   Resource
Community Resource Hub Defund Sheriffs: A Toolkit for Organizers N.D Community Resource Hub. “Defund Sherrifs: A Toolkit for Organizers.” Community Resource Hub,
n.d. https://communityresourcehub.org/resources/defund-sheriffs-toolkit/
This toolkit aims to explain how the role of a police sheriff stands as “an obstacle to collective liberation” and provides information and resources for organizations to reduce the power of the sheriff in their jurisdiction. The
toolkit also describes police sheriffs’ historic role in perpetuating racism.
911 History     Reducing police response Police reform Budget AS Y   Resource
Wilson, A. and WIlson, M. Reimagining Policing: Strategies for Community Reinvestment 2020 Wilson, A. and WIlson, M. “Reimagining Policing: Strategies for Community Reinvestment.” National Association of Social Workers,
2020. https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=GjXJr6rDzss%3D&portalid=0 
This brief introduces several models for change within the 911 and police systems, falling into three main categories. First is a community reinvestment model. The authors recommend utilization of savings from prison reduction, drug
forfeiture dollars, or even jail reform initiatives to help put funding back into communities. Second, the authors introduce pre-arrest diversion models to end racialized over criminalization and mitigate police encounters. Finally, they
discuss models for redesigning the 911 call system in an effort to reduce the amount of armed officers serving as first responders.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Reducing police response Budget   AS Y   Resource
IJIS Institute TechFest event looks to the future of translation for text-to-911 2019 Institute, IJIS. “TechFest Event Looks to the Future of Translation for Text-to-911.” Police1. Police1, September 23, 2019.
https://www.police1.com/police-products/police-technology/software/cad/articles/techfest-event-looks-to-the-future-of-translation-for-text-to-911-k3Td3fT7SCzjOLgR/.
The introduction of texting to 911 emergency call centers from mobile phones opened up a new way to contact public safety officials, but public safety answering points (PSAPs) face a real problem if the texts are in a foreign
language. 
Call Handling Operations Technology   Accessibility Call taker procedures   AT Y   Resource
Mike Moulton (Captain of the El Cajon, California Police Department) 911, This Is Siri, Whats your Emergency? Integrating Chatbots Into Public Safety Communications 2021 Moulton, Mike. “911, This Is Siri, Whats your Emergency? Integrating Chatbots Into Public Safety Communications.” Police Chief Magazine. 
https://www.policechiefmagazine.org/911-this-is-siri-whats-your-emergency/.
This article suggests that in the future, chatbots will likely become an integral of public safety communication centers and will directly enhance public safety and increase efficiency while decreasing staffing needs and personnel
costs. Chatbots are infinitely scalable – they can theoretically answer an unlimited number of simultaneous phone calls. As the field of artificial intelligence continues to expand, sophisticated chatbots could become more
indistinguishable from humans.       
Technology Data Research & KPIs 911 Hotline Alternatives Accessibility Budget   AT y   Resource
Ernie Clark Increase in misdialed 911 calls may be caused by smartphones and smartwatches 2020 Clark, Ernie. “Increase in Misdialed 911 Calls May Be Caused by Smartphones and Smartwatches.” Bangor Daily News. Bangor Daily News, August 1, 2020.
https://bangordailynews.com/2020/08/01/news/increase-in-misdialed-911-calls-may-be-caused-by-smartphones-and-smartwatches/.
Among the millions of 911 calls, there are an increasingly unhealthy number of 911 misdials, many coming from newer models of some cell phones and smartwatches with a feature that activates an automated emergency call when side buttons
are pressed multiple times.
Technology Call Handling Operations   Accessibility Caller protocol   AT Y   Resource
TCR Staff Eight States Weigh Bills to Improve Police Response to Mental Health Crises 2021 Staff, TCR. “Eight States Weigh Bills to Improve Police Response to Mental Health Crises.” The Crime Report. The Crime Report, April 6, 2021.
https://thecrimereport.org/2021/04/05/eight-states-introduce-legislation-changing-police-response-to-mental-health-crises/.
In response to several high-profile deaths of people with mental health issues in police custody, lawmakers in at least eight states are introducing legislation to change how law enforcement agencies respond to those in crisis. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance   Behavioral Health Police reform Reducing police response AT Y   Resource
Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar Feds fund mental health crisis teams to stand in for police 2021 Alonso-zaldivar, Ricardo. “Feds Fund Mental Health Crisis Teams to Stand in for Police.” AP NEWS. Associated Press, April 23, 2021.
https://apnews.com/article/health-police-government-and-politics-mental-health-coronavirus-f8931f4907b46b49dfb4dea651d7e1e7.
When police respond to a person gripped by a mental health or drug crisis, the encounter can have tragic results. Now a government insurance program will help communities set up an alternative: mobile teams with mental health
practitioners trained in de-escalating such potentially volatile situations.
Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team On-scene response AT Y   Resource
Mark Berman and Tom Jackman After a summer of protest, Americans voted for policing and criminal justice changes 2020 Mark Berman, Tom Jackman. “After a Summer of Protest, Americans Voted for Policing and Criminal Justice Changes.” The Washington Post. WP Company, November 16, 2020.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/criminal-justice-election/2020/11/13/20186380-25d6-11eb-8672-c281c7a2c96e_story.html.
With a wave of votes across the country, Americans backed a string of measures increasing police oversight, elected reform-minded prosecutors, loosened drug laws and passed other proposals rethinking key elements of law enforcement and
justice in their communities.
Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Police reform Community collaboration Reducing police response AT Y   Resource
Ronal Serpas A Smarter Public Safety Model 2021 Serpas, Ronal. “A Smarter Public Safety Model.” Police Chief Magazine. January
2021. https://www.policechiefmagazine.org/smarter-public-safety-model/ 
The author discusses the criminal justice system’s role in responding to mental health issues, drug and alcohol addiction, and chronic homelessness. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Behavioral Health Police reform Unhoused population AT y   Resource
Adam Harris First Comes Police Reform 2021 Harris, Adam. “First Comes Police Reform. Then Comes Everything Else.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, July 14, 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2020/07/after-police-protests/614050/. People are in the streets during the summer (2020) over the murder of George Floyd, but the current racial reckoning in America goes far beyond lethal policing. Black people are more likely to attend highly segregated schools,
experience high unemployment rates, and be confronted by racist housing policies.
Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Police use of force Police reform Community collaboration AT y   Resource
Katie Macbride 911 Dispatchers Hear the Worst Moments of Our Lives. Who Listens To Them? 2020 Macbride, Katie. “911 Dispatchers Hear the Worst Moments of Our Lives. Who Listens To Them?” VICE. March 13,
2020. https://www.vice.com/en/article/9398qy/911-dispatchers-hear-the-worst-moments-of-our-lives-who-listens-to-them 
The general public doesn’t always understand how difficult the job can be, but 911 telecommunicators have taken to calling themselves the “first first responders,” since they often serve as the very front line of life-saving
communication. They experience high rates of PTSD from frequent traumatic experiences, and are often not provided adequate supports.
PST Professionalism and Supports Call Handling Operations   Behavioral Health Call taker support   AT y   Resource
Paul Davidson With 911 Dispatchers in Short Supply, Average Response Time is Slower 2018 Davidson, Paul. “With 911 Dispatchers in Short Supply, Average Response Time Is Slower.” USA Today. Gannett
Satellite Information Network, September 28, 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2018/09/24/911-centers-struggle-hire-operators-slowing-response/1196541002/.
When Americans dial 911 in an emergency, they expect a fast response and a reassuring voice at the other end of the line. But 911 centers across the country are struggling to hire enough operators, slowing the time it takes to answer
calls.
PST Professionalism and Supports Call Handling Operations   Behavioral Health Call taker support Call taker procedures AT y   Resource
Michelle Perin The Importance of a 911 Dispatcher’s Voice 2019 Parin, Michelle. “The Importance of a 911 Dispatcher’s Voice.” Officer.com. August 27,
2019. https://www.officer.com/command-hq/technology/communications/dispatch-technology/article/21095189/the-importance-of-a-911-dispatchers-voice 
A calm and measured tone of voice is vital for 911 dispatchers during an emergency. A calm dispatcher calms the responders and helps them emotionally regulate, setting the tone for the situation. PST Professionalism and Supports     Behavioral Health Call taker procedures   AT y   Resource
Jenni Bergal Hackers Threaten to Release Police Records, Knock 911 Offline 2021 Bergal, Jenni. “Hackers Threaten to Release Police Records, Knock 911 Offline.” The Pew
Charitable Trusts. May 14, 2021. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2021/05/14/hackers-threaten-to-release-police-records-knock-911-offline 
A cybercriminal gang that breached the Washington, DC, Metropolitan Police Department’s computer network in a ransomware attack published detailed information this week about nearly two dozen officers, including SSNs and psychological
assessments.
Technology           AT y   Resource
Sarah Mucha Exclusive: Biden directing $2.5B to address mental health and addiction crisis 2021 Mucha, Sarah. “Exclusive: Biden directing $2.5B to address mental health and addiction crisis.” Axios. March 11,
2021. https://www.axios.com/biden-funding-drug-mental-health-crisis-310d0250-cb6e-409c-8f30-9d73c3fd94a7.html 
Biden is directing $2.5 billion in funding to address the nation’s worsening mental illness and addiction crisis through two block grants, according to an official from the US Department of Health and Human Services. Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 Hotline Alternatives Budget Behavioral Health Health care continuum AT y   Resource
Rampant Magazine and Southside Weekly Op-Ed: Abolish UofC’s Crime Lab 2020 Magazine, Rampant, and South Side Weekly. “Op-Ed: Abolish UofC’s Crime Lab.” South Side Weekly. South Side Weekly, October 28,
2020. https://southsideweekly.com/op-ed-abolish-uofcs-crime-lab/ 
In the wake of the 2020 summer’s protests against racist policing, academic institutions across the country have faced scrutiny and activist campaigns surrounding their relationships with police departments. Governance Data Research & KPIs   Budget Police reform Community collaboration AT y   Resource
Jeff Asher and Ben Horwitz How Do the Police Actually Spend Their Time? 2020 Asher, Jeff, and Ben Horwitz. “How Do the Police Actually Spend Their Time?” The New York Times. June 19,
2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/19/upshot/unrest-police-time-violent-crime.html
A few US cities post data online showing how their police departments spend their time. The share devoted to handling crime is very small – about 4 percent. Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Low-level crimes On-scene response   AT y   Resource
N’dea Yancey-Bragg and Grace Hauck Police don’t all act ‘the same way’: White officers use force more often, Chicago police study finds 2021 Yancey-Bragg, N’dea, and Grace Hauck. “Police Don’t All Act ‘the Same Way’: White Officers Use Force
More Often, Chicago Police Study Finds.” USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, February 15,
2021. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2021/02/11/chicago-police-study-white-cops-more-likely-arrest-use-force/4439259001/
Race and gender have a profound effect on how police interact with civilians, and white officers use force more often and make more arrests, especially when interacting with Black people, according to a new study of police officers in
Chicago. Researchers analyzed data on Chicago police and found that white police officers make more stops, more arrests and use of force more often than Black and Hispanic officers facing similar situations.
Other Data Research & KPIs   On-scene response Police reform Reducing police response AT y   Resource
Alan Greenblatt Defund Your Local Sheriff? Police Reform on Ballots Nationwide 2020 Greenblatt, Alan. “Defund Your Local Sheriff? Police Reform on Ballots Nationwide.” Governing. October 28,
2020. https://www.governing.com/now/defund-your-local-sheriff-police-reform-on-ballots-nationwide.html
Numerous measures curbing police power or pursuing criminal justice reform ideas were on state and local ballots at the time of publishing. They predate the George Floyd protests but reflect current concerns. Civilian review boards are
not a new idea, but they’ve gained renewed currency since the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Mo., in 2014. Measures to create or expand the power of civilian review boards are or were on the ballot in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San
Francisco, San Diego, Columbus, Ohio, Portland, Ore., and a number of smaller cities. Other types of oversight entities could be created or empowered in Oakland, San Jose and Sonoma County, Calif., and King County, Wash., which includes
Seattle. 
Governance 911 Hotline Alternatives Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Police reform Reducing police response Civilian Response Team AT y   Resource
Joel Shannon Americans want major police reform, more focus on serious crime 2020 Shannon, Joel. “USA TODAY Poll: Americans Want Major Police Reform, More Focus on Serious Crime.”
USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, June 29, 2020. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/06/29/us-police-reform-poll-finds-support-more-training-transparency/3259628001/ 
Most Americans believe that change must be made to law enforcement across the nation and that reforms are needed to reduce police brutality against Black Americans. Ideas for change include forcing officers to reapply for their jobs to
help weed out bad cops, limiting the scope of policing to focus on serious and violent crimes, and cutting off police departments’ ability to buy military gear.
Other     Police reform Reducing police response Public opinion AT y   Resource
Roge Karma How Cities Can Tackle Violent Crime without Relying on Police 2020 Karma, Roge. “How Cities Can Tackle Violent Crime without Relying on Police.” Vox. August 7,
2020. https://www.vox.com/21351442/patrick-sharkey-uneasy-peace-abolish-defund-the-police-violence-cities
Roge Karma interviews Patrick Sharkey, a sociologist, about the trade-offs of policing. One of the most robust findings in criminology is that putting more police officers on the streets leads to less violent crime, yet recent police
killings and violence against protestors are a reminder that policing also produces staggering costs. Sharkey discusses alternative approaches.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 Hotline Alternatives   Police reform Behavioral Health Reducing police response AT y   Resource
Antonio Oftelie Marching Forward: A Vision for Transformation in American Policing and Public Safety 2020 Oftelie, Antonio M. “Marching Forward: A Vision for Transformation in American Policing and
Public Safety.” Medium. June 11, 2020. https://medium.com/@antonio.oftelie/marching-forward-a-vision-for-transformation-in-american-policing-and-public-safety-a36173ea3e4f
The transformation of policing will be the biggest civil rights issue of our time. Oftelie proposes ten principles of “legitimate public safety,” including professionalization, wellness orientation, transparency, limits to force, focus
on human and civil rights, and commitment to addressing root causes.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance   Police reform Community collaboration Budget AT y   Resource
Mike Pesca A Major Challenge to Policing Reform: the Absence of Good Data 2020 Pesca, Mike. “A Major Challenge to Policing Reform: the Absence of Good Data.” Slate Magazine. July 11,
2020. https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2020/07/policing-project-barry-friedman-pesca-gist-interview-transcript.html
In a two-part interview on Slate podcast The Gist, Friedman joins host Mike Pesca to discuss his research into police use of force, accountability, and reform. The two discuss controversy over police departments’ military equipment,
gaps in data about police violence, and the trouble with identifying what makes a good police department.
Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Police reform Behavioral Health Reducing police response AT y   Resource
Jessica W. Gillooly The Missing Link in Police Reform: 911 Call-Takers 2020 Gillooly, Jessica W. “The Missing Link in Police Reform: 911 Call-Takers.” The Crime Report. July 27,
2020. https://thecrimereport.org/2020/07/27/the-missing-link-in-police-reform-911-call-takers/ 
The author uses the 2009 arrest of Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. as a case study of the ways 911 call-takers influence police response, and to illustrate the need for additional training and more nuanced call
procedures. 
Call Handling Operations     Caller protocol On-scene response Call taker procedures AT y   Resource
London Breed Declaring a Shelter Crisis 2019 Breed, London. “Declaring a Shelter Crisis.” Medium. January 15, 2019. https://londonbreed.medium.com/declaring-a-shelter-crisis-a186a1328942 London Breed, mayor of San Francisco, declares a shelter crisis in the city and introduces two ordinances that will help address the public emergency and help unsheltered residents.  Governance     Unhoused population Behavioral Health   AT y   Resource
Federal Communications Commission  911 and E911 Services   Federal Communication Comission. ‘911 and E911 Services.’  https://www.fcc.gov/general/9-1-1-and-e9-1-1-services The article gives a history of 911, the passing of the Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act of 1999 (911 Act)  to improve public safety, and now the Enhanced911 or E911 system which allows calls to be made from wireless
phones. The paper also talks about other provisions that the FCC has taken up such as allowing callers to directly dial 911 without a prefix, getting details of the location of the caller through the 911 dispatching system. It also talks
about how the fees and charges collected from 911 calls are allocated and being used by different states. 
911 History Technology Governance Accessibility Budget Caller protocol BT Y   Resource
Federal Communications Commission  Dispatchable Location for 911 Calls from Fixed Telephony, Interconnected VoIP, TRS, and Mobile Text Service 2020 Federal Communication Comission. ‘Dispatchable Location for 911 Calls from Fixed Telephony, Interconnected VoIP, TRS, and Mobile Text Service.’
2020.  https://www.fcc.gov/911-dispatchable-location#:~:text=Fixed%20devices%20The%20rules%20for,caller%20when%20placing%20the%20call.
In 2019, the Commission adopted the Ray BAUM’s act which will ensure that information about the location is shared through 911 calls. The information will include the street address of the caller and additional information, such as
room or floor number, to adequately respond to the caller. Moreover, there are different rules which have been formulated for fixed devices as compared to movable devices such as VoIP, Internet based TRS and mobile text
services. 
Technology Data Research & KPIs Governance Accessibility     BT Y   Resource
Federal Communications Commission  PSAP Text-to-911 Readiness and Certification Registry (Text-to-911 Registry) 2021 Federal Communication Comission. ‘PSAP Text-to-911 Readiness and Certification Registry (Text-to-911 Registry)’
2021. https://www.fcc.gov/general/psap-text-911-readiness-and-certification-form
The Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau (Bureau) facilitates requests from PSAPs by maintaining a database which received 911 communications through messages and real time text format. In 2014, the Commission adopted rules 
to have Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS) providers and providers of interconnected text messaging services support text to 911 service.  In 2016, the commission made provisions for making a transition from text telephone devices
to Real Time text messages to help people with hearing and speaking disabilities to communicate easily their 911 requests. 
Technology Data Research & KPIs Governance Accessibility Caller protocol   BT Y   Resource
911.gov Next Generation 911 nd 911.gov. “Next Generation 911.” https://www.911.gov/issue_nextgeneration911.html This article talks about the Next Generation (NG911) system which helps in improving a PSAP’s ability to manage call overload, natural disasters, and transferring of 911 calls and provide better responses during such emergencies by
better location tracking. The transition to NG911 will require adoption of both hardware and software. It will also require a lot of coordination with different communication systems, public safety, legislative and government
entities. 
Technology Call Handling Operations Data Research & KPIs Accessibility Call taker procedures   BT Y   Resource
911.gov Text-to-911 nd 911.gov. “Text-to-911.” https://www.911.gov/issue_textto911.html This article talks about the updating of the 911 system so it can now take text messages. In 2014, the four largest wireless service providers (AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile and Verizon), agreed to provide all 911 call centers with the
ability to receive texts. In areas where the service doesn’t work, a user sending a text to 911 will get an automated bounced back message saying that the message failed to be delivered. The option to text is essential, especially for
people with hearing or speaking disabilities. 
Technology     Accessibility Caller protocol   BT Y   Resource
911.gov ET3 Model Participant Eligibility Factsheet 2021 911.gov. “ET3 Model Participant Eligibility
Factsheet.” https://innovation.cms.gov/files/fact-sheet/et3-eligibility-fs.pdf
This factsheet gives out the eligibility requirements to provide medical services through the three different methods of provisioning under ET3 Model: Standard Intervention, Model Intervention, and ET3 Model Intervention. In the first
case, service is provided through standard procedure by taking the person to an ED. In the second, an ambulance transports the person to an alternative destination. In the third case, qualified healthcare providers give support. For these
three cases, states are required to have a partner which may include Federally Qualified Health Centers, urgent care centers, physician offices, or behavioral health centers. And for standard intervention, states are required to have
partnerships with a qualified healthcare practitioner that can provide treatment either onsite or via telehealth. Moreover, there is also discussion in the factsheet regarding ways to incorporate provisioning of services for people without
medicare. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Accessibility Health care continuum Civilian Response Team BT Y Additional Reference: https://innovation.cms.gov/files/x/et3-infographic.pdf Resource
CAHOOTS Consulting  Mental Health First Response and Mobile Crisis Intervention Since 1989  2020 CAHOOTS Consulting. ‘Mental Health First Response and Mobile Crisis Intervention Since 1989’ . 2020   https://whitebirdclinic.org/what-is-cahoots/ This article discusses how the White Bird Clinic launched CAHOOTS (Crisis Assistance Helping Out On The Streets) as a community policing initiative in 1989, providing community based assistance for mental health problems. CAHOOTS teams
contain a paramedic and crisis response specialist, with no one bearing arms. More than 60% of the clients are homeless, and 30% live with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). There is a low budget for CAHOOTS even though it saves
a lot of money that goes into EPD. Replicating CAHOOTS requires a well established human services network, community connection, and care and trust of the population. 

 

Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Unhoused population BT Y   Resource
Madelyn Coles et al.  Safety Beyond Policing: Promoting Care Over Criminalization 2021 Madelyn Coles, Donovan Hicks, Michelle Portillo, Erica Posey, Jacob Seidman, and K.C. Shah “Safety Beyond Policing: Promoting
Care Over Criminalization.” Stanford Criminal Justice Center, April 2021. https://law.stanford.edu/publications/safety-beyond-policing-promoting-care-over-criminalization/
This report describes a review of public safety measures that are alternatives to police response and their effectiveness. Police are described as ill-equipped to handle many functions they’re asked to do such as responding to mental
health crises or kids misbehaving, and the public backlash they have received because of it. It also provides recommendations of direct steps jurisdictions can take to save funds and improve public health and safety by reducing police
response. This report focuses on two main tasks: 1) reviewing alternatives to traditional policing that have been implemented in cities nationwide, and 2) proposing cost-effective reforms that further public safety. The authors describe
four main areas where police-first response may not be optimal: mental health, homelessness, traffic enforcement, and school safety. They recommend mental health first responder teams and co-response by crisis workers and EMS. 
 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations   Behavioral Health Co-responder program Unhoused population BT y   Resource
Mimi E. Kim et al.  Defund the Police – Invest in Community Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Responses 2021 Kim E. Mimi, Chung Megyung, Hassan Shira & Ritchie J Andrea.   ‘Defund the Police – Invest in Community Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Crisis Responses’. Interrupting Criminalization, May 2021.
https://communityresourcehub.org/resources/defund-the-police-invest-in-community-care-a-guide-to-alternative-mental-health-crisis-responses/ 
This document talks about the challenges that the co-responder model faces and how even though police are trained to call mental health professionals, paramedics, or civil responders, they do not call them. moreover, the co-responder
teams remain largely white, indicating the racial disparity in such teams. This report suggests that there is a need for the co-responder teams to work autonomously, with reduced police intervention, have sufficient training and
infrastructure, and come up with real mental health crisis interventions. It also suggests that one model cannot fit the whole country, as alternative responses require localized conditions and coordination. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Behavioral Health Co-responder program Reducing police response BT Y   Resource
PAD Initiative A new Approach to Community Safety and wellness 2021 PAD Initiative. ‘A new Approach to Community Safety and wellness’. March,
2021. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5e9dddf40c5f6f43eacf969b/t/609aa18029b1912d9c304e61/1620746631734/PADAtlanta_2021-Q1-Report.pdf
This article discusses PAD’s collaboration with Atlanta’s 311 services due to concerns related to mental health, substance use, or extreme poverty. Through the Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion program (LEAD), people go into PAD instead
of being arrested. PAD conducts needs assessments and then refers people to the support that they require. In more extensive cases, PAD directly intervenes to provide support. For the efficient working of the referral and diversion
systems, PAD conducted training for both police personnels and community members through training videos and community videos. More than 73% of callers reported either basic needs or mental health concerns, while 34% identified a public
disturbance as the reason for the call.
 
911 Hotline Alternatives     Behavioral Health 988-211-311 Community collaboration BT Y   Resource
Ruth Simera et al.  Transforming Dispatch and Crisis Response Services: Meeting Challenges with Innovation 2021 Simera, Ruth et al. ‘Transforming Dispatch and Crisis Response Services: Meeting Challenges with Innovation’. The Academic Training to Inform Police
Responses. March 2021. https://www.theiacp.org/sites/default/files/MHIDD/Dispatch-Crisis-Response.pdf
This document talks about the history of the Crisis Intervention Team (including trainings and holding conferences) in Ohio. It discusses strategies on training methods such as focusing on local needs, discussing the needs of 911
workers, and having talks about the different kinds of calls related to mental health, PTSD, and suicidal calls. The second part of the document talks about the Mental Health Collaboration program in Colorado, which is a state line and
aims at reducing subjects dealing with mental health crises from being arrested. The Colorado collaboration program seeks to include behavioral health as the fourth service provided by 911 emergency calls. The third part of the document
deals with Albuquerque’s Intellectual and Developmental Disability Training for Telecommunicators.  The training will involve mental health training, Autism and Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) training and scenario based training.
The fourth part, talks about the street crisis response team, a pilot program in San Francisco. The goal of this intervention is to Provide rapid, trauma-informed response to calls for service to people experiencing crisis in public spaces
in order to reduce law enforcement encounters and unnecessary emergency room use. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports Behavioral Health Reducing police response Co-responder program BT Y Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation Prevention and Population Health Group. ‘Emergency Triage, Treat, and Transport Model(ET3)’, 2019.  Resource
Los Angeles County, Alternatives to Incarceration Work Group Health and Racial Justice Strategies for Safer Communities 2020 Los Angeles County, Alternatives to Incarceration Work Group. ‘Health and Racial Justice Strategies for Safer Communities’,
2020. https://lacalternatives.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/ATI_Full_Report_single_pages.pdf
Alternatives to Incarceration (ATI) Work Group developed and approved 114 recommendations through an intensive consensus-building process involving more than 1,000 government and community stakeholders. Some recommendations were:
expanding community based care, utilizing behavioral health responses, supporting and delivering meaningful pre-trial release and diversion services, providing treatment in alternative services, and coordination to implement ATI
recommendations in order to reduce racial disparities. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Behavioral Health Health care continuum Community collaboration BT Y   Resource
Federal Communications Commission  Task Force on Optimal PSAP Architecture : Final Report  2016 Task Force on Optimal PSAP Architecture. ‘Adopted Final Report.’ Federal Communications Commission. 2016. https://transition.fcc.gov/pshs/911/TFOPA/TFOPA_FINALReport_012916.pdf This report presents the challenges being faced by the current 911 system due to the overall technological backwardness that the system faces as compared to the advancements happening outside the 911 network. It talks about improving
the PSAP Architecture by integration and implementation of the NG911 system, increasing cyber security on these emergency calls and coming up with sustainable financing and funding solutions. 
Technology Call Handling Operations   Budget Call taker procedures   BT Y   Resource
The Departments of Health and Human Services (Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and Health Resources and Services Administration) and Transportation (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)  Innovation Opportunities for Emergency Medical Services 2013 Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Health Resources and Services Administration. ‘
Innovation Opportunities for Emergency Medical Services.’ July, 2013. https://www.ems.gov/pdf/2013/EMS_Innovation_White_Paper-draft.pdf
This joint report talks about the overburden on the EMS services, where all 911 calls related to medical emergencies are sent to the emergency-department (ED). The report talks about how sending non-emergency medical and low-risk
medical cases to Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) or Rural Health Clinics (RHC) are more viable options and can get down the cost burden on the EDs by a significant amount. This can be done through better management of dispatching
calls, where either help is sent to the 911 location and the patient is treated there or sent to alternative places of medical care. The report also describes tools to analyze data and calculate low level cases of medical
emergencies. 
Call Handling Operations Data Research & KPIs   Health care continuum Call taker procedures Budget BT Y   Resource
Leah Sakala Public Investment in Community-Driven Safety Initiatives 2018 Shakala, Leah, et al. ‘Public Investment in Community-Driven Safety Initiatives’, Urban Institute,
November 2018. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/99262/public_investment_in_community-driven_safety_initiatives_1.pdf
This report defines community public safety investment as directing public resources to local community-driven public safety strategies that extend beyond traditional law enforcement and corrections players. Directing these resources
to the community gives communities more agency in resource allocation decisions and helps create a vested interest in the success of local interventions. The community-driven public funding strategies in this report fall into three
categories: 1. Reinvestment: harnessing savings from reform and channeling them to community initiatives; 2. Up-front investment: generating new sources of funding for community initiatives; 3. Invest-divest: shifting funding away from
traditional law enforcement and correctional entities and towards alternative community priorities. The report also gives different examples of these 3 models of funding strategies from cities across the US. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Budget Community collaboration Reducing police response BT Y   Resource
Data Clinic  Creating a Consolidated Taxonomy for 911 Call Data across Different US Cities 2020 Data Clinic. “Creating a Consolidated Taxonomy for 911 Call Data Across Different US Cities.”
2020. https://medium.com/dataclinic/creating-a-consolidated-taxonomy-for-911-call-data-across-different-us-cities-part-2-9600cb09abfd
This blog article talks about how codification for 911 data analysis identified three different types of variables (CAD, Disposition and call type) to study across different states. These variables face challenges of heterogeneity of
codification across different states and thus, the study categorizes them under brackets made for unifying the variables as close to the specified code by the state as possible. There are also situations where the initial CAD code and the
final CAD code are different in the coding systems of the states, and thus making 911 data collection more efficient and uniform is important to be better analyze data and making policy recommendations based on these. 
Data Research & KPIs Call Handling Operations   Call taker procedures Call type   BT Y   Resource
911.gov National 911 Progress Report 2019 911.gov. ‘National 911Progress  Report’ , November 2019. https://www.911.gov/pdf/National_911_Annual_Report_2019_Data.pdf To enhance the adoption of the N911 system across different states of the US, the national 911 program collaborated with all the states of the US to gather data on the number of PSAPs in each state, type of 911 calls answered, progress
of N911 in different states, etc. Training on how to conduct surveys was given out to different states. 22 of the 47 responding states reported that they’ve begun installing and testing an NG911 part, function or component at the state
level. The number of new Emergency Services IP Networks (ESInets), shared services, and other NG911-related changes, driven by states and state 911 offices, is increasing. Some states now have statewide text-to-911 capability, while many
others are experiencing rapid implementation of text-to-911 on a PSAP/911 Authority basis. The majority, about 78%, of reported 911 calls originate from cellular phones. The data contained in the National 911 Profile Database shows
continued growth in 911 service to the nation as the industry continues to make progress towards NG911. These data can serve as a resource to states to garner support for the development of NG911 networks. 
Data Research & KPIs Technology   Call taker procedures Accessibility Call type BT Y   Resource
Phil Goldstein ESInets Help Public Safety Agencies Move to NG911 2019 Goldstein, Phil. ‘ESInets Help PublicSafety AgenciesMove to NG911’. State Tech. September, 2019. 
https://statetechmagazine.com/article/2019/09/esinets-help-public-safety-agencies-move-ng911-perfcon
This article talks about ESInet, which is a technology supporting the functioning of the NG911 Network. ESInet is capable of carrying voice based data and other varying types of data. They provide IP transport infrastructure upon which
independent application platforms and core functional processes can be deployed, including NG911 applications. ESInets need to fulfill these requirements: a. be a private and virtual network, b. have a scalable bandwidth, c. have
multiprotocol label switching, and d. sustain real-time traffic, including data, audio and video. 
Technology Data Research & KPIs   Call taker support Accessibility   BT Y   Resource
  Co-Responder Master Document   https://uchicago.app.box.com/s/x57590ya3ic5xiw3exg5db2146w56j8u/file/818518986648 This document talks about the trade-offs of adopting a co-responder team to deal with mental health crises. Having mental health teams integrated with police teams (by having CIT trained officers to work as part of the co-responder)
limits separation within teams, unlike Houston which has adopted a model where there is a dedicated mental health unit, which while it has the advantages of focussed mental health services, it will not allow for integration between teams.
The most common method being used is for dispatchers on the call, making the decision whether or not a call must be diverted to mental health professionals instead of police personnel. Efficiency and streamlining of services are often the
advantages of co-responder programs, however, issues of funding, hiring of extra personnel and sometimes calls not being diverted to mental health professionals become drawbacks of the program. The document also lays out examples of
different cities of the US and their co-responder models.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations   Co-responder program Call taker procedures Behavioral Health BT Y   Resource
Betsy Pearl Beyond Policing Investing in Offices of Neighborhood Safety 2020 Pearl, Betsy. ‘Beyond Policing Investing in Offices of Neighborhood Safety’. October
2020. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/criminal-justice/reports/2020/10/15/491545/beyond-policing-investing-offices-neighborhood-safety/ 
This report provides a roadmap for city governments to establish a Civilian Office of Neighborhood Safety (ONS) that provides the infrastructure and resources necessary for successful community-based public safety efforts. ONS was
first started in Richmond, California in 2007 and operates parallel to the criminal justice system. Responsibilities of ONS include violence Interruption, transformative mentoring, running job readiness programs, bridging trust gaps
between civilians and the government, and responding to non-police calls for service. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Community collaboration Reducing police response Civilian Response Team BT y   Resource
National Association of Counties & Arnold Ventures  Data Driven Justice: A Playbook for Developing a System of Diversion for Frequent Utilizers 2021 National Association of Counties & Arnold Ventures. ‘Data Driven
Justice: A Playbook for Developing a System of Diversion for Frequent Utilizers.’
2021. https://www.naco.org/resources/data-driven-justice-playbook#:~:text=The%20Data%2DDriven%20Justice%20(DDJ,individuals’%20health%20and%20social%20circumstances.
Data Driven Justice aims to help local jurisdictions use data to better align resources to respond to people with complex health and social needs, particularly those who are frequent utilizers of justice, health, and human services
systems. The strategies outlined in this playbook are focused around the goal of developing a multi-system strategy to divert frequent utilizers, when appropriate, away from the criminal justice and emergency health systems and toward
community-based treatment and services. Toward that end, the report recommends four preliminary steps: 1) bringing together a comprehensive group to mobilize interest and willingness to improve outcomes for frequent utilizers, 2) using the
data to identify and define the problems, 3) combining data to understand how individuals touch multiple systems, and 4) planning how shared data can be used to increase coordination across systems of care.
Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Reducing police response Community collaboration Health care continuum BT y   Resource
Samantha Brear GUIDELINES FOR STATE NG911 Legislative Language 2018 Brear, Samantha. ‘Guidelines for State NG911 Legislative Langugage.’ https://www.911.gov/pdf/DRAFT-LegisLang_PUBLIC.pdf This report provides sample legal language and guidance for state legislators around developing and legislating Next Generation 911. Governance Technology   Accessibility     BT y   Resource
Kevin J Storm et al.  Defund the Police? How to Chart a Path Forward with Evidence and Data 2020 Storm, Kevin, et al. “Defund the Police? How to Chart a Path Forward withEvidence and Data.” July 2020. RTI International. https://www.rti.org/insights/defund-the-police This article talks about the importance of data collection, reporting, and analysis to understand the police system and the social structures around it, in order to inform police reform policies and processes. Data can help formulate
new strategies for policing. The parameters can go beyond crime rates to include more comprehensive metrics such as safety, accountability, effectiveness, and equity.These data metrics can then be used to inform questions like which 911
calls are being prioritized and what tasks first responders are performing after receiving 911 calls.
Data Research & KPIs     Police reform Low-level crimes Call taker procedures BT y   Resource
Police Executive Research Forum  What Police Chiefs and Sheriffs Need to Know About Collecting and Analyzing Use-of-Force Data 2021 Police Executive Research Forum. ‘What Police Chiefs and Sheriffs Need to Know About Collecting and Analyzing Use-of-Force Data.’ February
2021. https://www.policeforum.org/assets/CollectingAnalyzingUOFData.pdf
The report talks about the various use of force incidents, collected from various literature sources, talking about the environmental and situational factors that may have influenced police action. It also lays out guidelines on
collecting and analyzing data on use of force incidents by the police. Factors like level of education, age of the police officer decreases the likelihood of the use of force, the amount of resistance shown by the subject, their likelihood
of carrying a weapon increases use of force, neighborhoods with higher poverty and crime rates experience more incidents of use of force, similarly race is a contributory factor in increasing the likelihood of the use of force. The report
also highlights why data collection is necessary, in order to be able to frame policies. 
Data Research & KPIs     Police use of force     BT Y   Resource
Data Clinic  Announcing a Consolidated Dataset of 911 Calls for Five US Cities 2020 Data Clinic and Vera Institute of Justice. ‘Announcing a Consolidated Dataset of 911 Calls for Five US Cities’.
2020. https://medium.com/dataclinic/announcing-a-consolidated-dataset-of-911-calls-for-five-us-cities-part-1-4320a1a31a88 
The Vera Institute and the Data Clinic partnered to analyze 911 data from different cities to determine most common call types. The analysis revealed that most calls received on 911 are for non-emergency incidents, and thus can be
routed to alternative policing, or alternative response systems. However, some 911 call data are difficult to analyze and interpret as different states have different ways of coding and categorizing calls. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs   Reducing police response     BT y   Resource
National Survey to Assess First Responder Deflection Programs in Response to the Opioid Crisis Report of the National Survey to Assess First Responder Deflection Programs in Response to the Opioid Crisis 2021 National Survey to Assess Law Enforcement-led
Diversion and First Responder Deflection Programs in Response to the Opioid Crisis. ‘Final
Report.’ https://www.cossapresources.org/Content/Documents/Articles/CHJ-TASC_Nation_Survey_Report.pdf
The report provides a summary of diversion and deflection programs which have been created to mitigate the opioid crisis. While the described programs were led by law enforcement agencies, they used collaborative network support to
function. The survey reports that it was often difficult for programs to obtain funding needed to provide accessible treatment services. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Reducing police response Accessibility Health care continuum BT y   Resource
Federal Communications Commission  TFOPA WG1 Cybersecurity  2016 Task Force on Optimal PSAP Architecture, Working Group 1. ‘Optimal Cybersecurity Approach for PSAPs, Supplemental Report.’ Federal
Communications Commission. 2016. https://transition.fcc.gov/pshs/911/TFOPA/TFOPA_WG1_Supplemental_Report-120216.pdf
The report provides detailed recommendations for upgrading and integrating 911 and Next Generation 911 core services with best-practice cybersecurity programs. The taskforce has recommended the creation of an additional PSAP which will
take care of cybersecurity – called the Emergency Communications Cybersecurity Center (EC3).
Technology Data Research & KPIs         BT y   Resource
Federal Communications Commission  TFOPA WG2 : Optimal Approach to NG9-1-1 Implementation 2016 Task Force on Optimal PSAP Architecture, Working Group 2. ‘Phase II Supplemental Report:
NG9-1-1 Readiness Scorecard.’ Federal Communications Commission.
2016. https://transition.fcc.gov/pshs/911/TFOPA/TFOPA_WG2_Supplemental_Report-120216.pdf
This report presents a rationale for adopting and integrating Next Generation 911 (NG911) systems, describes the progress that NG911 has made so far, and discusses constraints facing the progress of NG911, ultimately creating a
national readiness score for adoption of NG911 and recommending next steps for preparation and implementation.
Technology Governance Data Research & KPIs       BT y   Resource
Angus Loten  911 Response Times Are Getting Faster Thanks to Data Integration 2019 Loten, Angus. ‘911 Response Times Are Getting Faster Thanks to Data Integration.’ The Wall Street Journal.
2019. https://www.wsj.com/articles/911-response-times-are-getting-faster-thanks-to-data-integration-11560468747 
Call centers are trying to adopt newer software tools to coordinate and share data generated by different computer aided dispatch (CAD) systems. The data-integration platform used by the Mifflin Township (OH) Fire Department enables
data from different technology systems to work together and allows dispatchers to relay crucial information at the touch of a button. A pilot study has found this system reduces average response time by 45 seconds.
Technology Data Research & KPIs   Call taker procedures     BT y   Resource
Thomas J. Wieczorek et al.  POLICE DATA ANALYSIS REPORT 2020 Wieczorek, Thomas, et al. ‘Police Data Analysis Report.’ Center for Public Safety Management. December
2020. https://cao-94612.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/CPSM-Oakland-CFS-Report-Dec-2020.pdf 
CPSM and the Oakland PD examine calls associated with the department’s patrol response to preliminarily determine which calls might be suitable for alternative responses from alternative entities and/or civilian personnel. The report
analyzes data on the workload of the police, out of service activities, response time and deployment. 
 
Call Handling Operations Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Civilian Response Team Reducing police response   BT y   Resource
VALLEY COMMUNICATIONS CENTER 2019 ANNUAL REPORT 2019 VALLEY COMMUNICATIONS CENTER. “2019 Annual Report.” 2019. https://www.valleycom.org/docs/2019AnnualReport.pdf This report details the guiding strategies, challenges faced by and accomplishment  of the Valley Communications Center , the  911 call answering and emergency services dispatch center serving South King County. The center
faces challenges such as hiring of qualified employees, reducing impacts of overtime of staff, managing operations for staff members with technological upgradation, financial costs such as upgradation costs of technology, and meeting
customer needs, cyber and physical security challenges to ensure that an efficient and secure system is maintained. 
Call Handling Operations Technology   Budget Call taker support   BT Y   Resource
#CrisisTalk Innovation Archives 2021 “Innovations Archives.” #CrisisTalk, n.d. https://talk.crisisnow.com/category/innovations/. This website provides articles with the most recent information about innovations implemented nationwide along with important pressing issues concerning our current emergency crisis system. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance 911 Hotline Alternatives 988-211-311 Behavioral Health   LC Y   Resource
Crisis Text Line Crisis Text Line 2021 “Text HOME To 741741 Free, 24/7 Crisis Counseling.” Crisis Text Line, June 17, 2021. https://www.crisistextline.org/. This website provides information about the Crisis Text Line available 24/7 in US, Canada, UK and Ireland. By texting the Crisis Text Line the recipient will be connected to a trained Crisis Counselor that will help de-escalate crisis.
There are also resources on topics like coronavirus, anxiety, eating disorders, depression, suicide, and self-harm on the website.
911 Hotline Alternatives Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations 988-211-311 Behavioral Health Accessibility LC Y   Resource
National Domestic Violence Hotline The Hotline 2020 “National Domestic Violence Hotline.” The Hotline, December 15, 2020. https://www.thehotline.org/. This website provides information about the National Domestic Violence Hotline. With free, confidential, 24/7 available counselors, and a plethora of resources, the Hotline is aimed at ensuring individuals experiencing a crisis
concerning their behavioral health receive proper assistance. Callers are able to call the hotline, chat live, or text to get in contact.
911 Hotline Alternatives Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   988-211-311 Behavioral Health Accessibility LC Y   Resource
National Runaway Safeline National Runaway Safeline 2021 National Runaway Safeline, April 27, 2021. https://www.1800runaway.org/. This website provides information about the National Runaway Safeline that provides individuals seeking assistance with free consultations from team members available 24/7. Services can be reached through phone, a live chat, email, a
forum, or text.
911 Hotline Alternatives Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   988-211-311   Accessibility LC Y   Resource
Chicago Tribune Commentary: We Need a 211 Line for Nonemergency Health and Human Services 2020 Chicago Tribune. “Commentary: We Need a 211 Line for Nonemergency Health and Human Services.” Chicago Tribune, September 10, 2020.
https://www.chicagotribune.com/opinion/commentary/ct-opinion-211-emergency-mental-health-service-20200910-zy5xx5p7ardbdm6nxahq23vip4-story.html.
This article discusses how essential it is that Chicago implement a 211 hotline to aid vulnerable individuals in need of health and human services especially through the pandemic. Individuals who would answer 211 calls include expert
nonprofit staff equipped to help resolve issues involving loss of job, food need, grief and addiction counseling.
911 Hotline Alternatives Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   988-211-311 Behavioral Health   LC Y   Resource
Taleed El-Sabawi; Jennifer J. Carroll A Model for Defunding: An Evidence-Based Statute for Behavioral Health Crisis Response 2020 El-Sabawi, Taleed, and Jennifer J. Carroll. “A Model for Defunding: An Evidence-Based Statute for Behavioral Health Crisis Response.” SSRN. Social Science Research Network, September 3, 2020.
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3683432. 
This article explains and recommends the Model Behavioral Health Response Team Act (BHRT) – modeled after CAHOOTS – that can be tailored to meet the needs of local and state policymakers who want to defund and replace the police in
responding to mental health, substance use, and housing crises. It is informed by empirical evidence, federal guidelines, and a case-study of political activity motivated by police use of excessive force in Greensboro, N.C.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance Data Research & KPIs Behavioral Health Reducing police response Civilian Response Team LC Y   Resource
Critical Resistance The Oakland Power Projects 2018 “The Oakland Power Projects.” Critical Resistance, n.d. http://criticalresistance.org/chapters/cr-oakland/the-oakland-power-projects/. This booklet provides information about The Oakland POWER Projects, a community-led organization, with a message to build community and wellbeing by investing in practices, relationships, and resources. Within the organization there is
a Critical Resistance cohort whose efforts are directed towards curating a meaningful Project theme by conducting interviews, listening & finding, and launching a project. This particular resource provides information on the policing
and health wellness project. The organization ensures community members are well equipped to know when and how to respond to policing after calling 911 by offering learning workshops. Information on the opioid and overdose project is also
included.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History   Behavioral Health   Community collaboration LC Y   Resource
National League of Cities Spreading and Scaling Innovative City Approaches to Address Mental Health, Substance Use and Homelessness 2021 “Case Studies: Addressing Mental Health, Substance Use and Homelessness.” National League of Cities, June 22, 2021. https://www.nlc.org/initiative/addressing-mental-health-substance-use-and-homelessness/. This report discusses how spreading and scaling innovative city approaches is vital to addressing mental health, substance use and homelessness. There is an emphasis towards the implementation of cross-system collaboration to expand
access of services and supports to particularly vulnerable populations. Taking into consideration exemplary cities who have implemented innovations to provide effective emergency response and crisis stabilization to individuals with mental
illness, substance use disorder or individuals experiencing homelessness, state and federal leaders are inclined to scaling aforementioned emergency response to ensure stabilization.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance   Behavioral Health Health care continuum Unhoused population LC Y   Resource
S. Rebecca Neusteter, Ram Subramanian, Jennifer Trone, Mawia Khogali, and Cindy Reed Gatekeepers: The Role of Police in Ending Mass Incarceration 2019 Neusteter, Rebecca S, Ram Subramanian, Jennifer Trone, Mawia Khogali, and Cindy Reed. “Gatekeepers: The Role of Police in Ending Mass Incarceration .” Vera Institute of Justice, August 2019.
https://www.vera.org/publications/gatekeepers-police-and-mass-incarceration.
With the magnitude in which police officers are performing arrests in America, there has been a correlation established between arrest and jail incarceration. To begin to shift the paradigm, society must first dissect police work as
they are the gatekeepers to the entire system. This report dives into alternatives to enforcement that don’t involve the criminal justice system with ideas of reengineering the 911 system.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations   Reducing police response Call taker procedures Police reform LC Y   Resource
Philip V. McHarris Research Memo: Alternatives to Policing 2020 McHarris, Philip V. “Alternatives to Policing.” Community Resource Hub, December 8, 2020. https://communityresourcehub.org/resources/alternatives-to-policing/. This memo assesses reviews of alternatives to policing in the context of police abolitionist frameworks while highlighting on successful innovations. Substantial recommendations on alternatives to policing are provided as well. There
is also discussion about types of advocacy. According to the memo, types of advocacy are distinguished by their goals. Some advocacy groups want to abolish the entire policing system while some advocacy groups want to establish a new
response framework by defunding the police and instead investing in alternatives. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Civilian Response Team Police reform Reducing police response LC Y   Resource
Creative Interventions Creative Interventions Toolkit: A Practical Guide to Stop Interpersonal Violence 2012 “Toolkit: A Practical Guide to Stop Interpersonal Violence.” Creative Interventions, 2012. https://www.creative-interventions.org/toolkit/. Creative Interventions (CI) has curated a toolkit to provide resources to address, reduce, end or prevent interpersonal violence. The toolkit promotes community-based interventions to violence, also known as transformative justice. By
sifting through past approaches and ideas to halt interpersonal violence, the goal is to create an intervention that is collective, action-orientated, community-based, coordinated, holistic, centers violence victims, and supports
transformation. The toolkit is meant to learn from previous innovations and apply knowledge into a new community-based intervention.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs   Behavioral Health Community collaboration Reducing police response LC Y   Resource
U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance, The Council of State Governments Justice Center, and the University of Cincinnati Taking the Call: A National Conference Exploring Innovative Community Responder Models 2021 The CSG Justice Center. “Taking the Call: A National Conference Exploring Innovative Community Responder Models,” May 20, 2021. https://vimeo.com/552976017. Video presents Taking the Call conference that took place on May 20, 2021. The conference brought stakeholders together from across the U.S. to discuss how cities are implementing innovations to ensure emergency calls receive an
appropriate response. Panelists in the conference included Dr. Anita Everett, Anne Larsen, Kristen Mahoney, Keris Jän Myrick, Paul Murphy, and Carleigh M. Sailon.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations Governance Behavioral Health Low-level crimes Civilian Response Team LC y   Resource
Alex Blandford and Stephanie Shaw A Matter of Public Health and Safety: How States Can Support Local Crisis Systems 2021 Shaw, Stephanie, and Alex Blandford. “A Matter of Public Health and Safety: How States Can Support Local Crisis Systems.” The Council of State Governments Justice Center, June 30, 2021.
https://csgjusticecenter.org/publications/a-matter-of-public-health-and-safety-how-states-can-support-local-crisis-systems/?mc_cid=5350050457&mc_eid=8733c4a8da.
This report discusses the lack of care and services available to address mental health crises in communities. Community members are demanding change to ensure health and safety. This change starts with creating and advancing local
crisis care systems that help mitigate crisis calls. By taking a look at cities who have implemented these innovations, it quickly becomes apparent how impactful they are; however, funding for such systems is not sufficient. This report
proposes five actions states can take to help local communities to fund and sustain local crisis systems that will reduce harmful overreliance on police officers, hospitals, and jails in addressing mental health crises.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance   Behavioral Health Budget Community collaboration LC y   Resource
Illinois Department of Human Services Living Room Program 2020 Illinois Department of Human Services. “Living Room Program.” 2020. https://www.dhs.state.il.us/page.aspx?item=126349 This website provides an overview of the Living Room Program (LRP), which is designed to help individuals in need and break the cycle of psychiatric hospitalization. Staffed with Recovery Support Specialists, the Living Room Program
curates an inviting place for individuals to receive help at times of crisis. Service locations in Illinois are provided.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Health care continuum LC y   Resource
#CrisisTalk 988 & Crisis Learning Community Weekly Calls 2021 “988 & Crisis Learning Community Weekly Calls.” #CrisisTalk, June 30, 2021. https://talk.crisisnow.com/calls/. This website provides recordings of 988 & Crisis Learning Community Weekly Calls that provide updates on the 988 hotline initiative nationwide. 911 Hotline Alternatives Governance   Behavioral Health 988-211-311 Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Maya Dukmasova Are There Alternatives to Calling 911? 2017 Dukmasova, Maya. “Are There Alternatives to Calling 911?” Chicago Reader, October 20, 2017. https://www.chicagoreader.com/Bleader/archives/2017/10/30/are-there-alternatives-to-calling-911. This article discusses the frequency of police violence across vulnerable populations and highlights the importance of implementing alternative emergency response programs. By inspecting widespread sentiments towards calling 911, the
author unravels the faults in the system.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations   Behavioral Health Reducing police response Accessibility LC y   Resource
Clarence Page Tribune Content Agency CLARENCE PAGE: On Matters of Mental Health, Do We Ask Police to Do Too Much? 2020 Clarence Page Tribune Content Agency. “CLARENCE PAGE: On Matters of Mental Health, Do We Ask Police to Do Too Much?” Las Vegas Review-Journal, September 10, 2020.
https://www.reviewjournal.com/opinion/clarence-page-on-matters-of-mental-health-do-we-ask-police-to-do-too-much-2114809/.
The author argues that the case of Daniel Prude, an individual killed by police  while in mental health crisis, it becomes apparent that police officers are not the best first responders in these situations. The article discusses
the role of police officers in the emergency response system and suggests alternatives to ensure these calls are responded to properly.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Behavioral Health Low-level crimes Police reform LC y   Resource
Sarah Steverman, Elyse Yarmosky, Holly Swan, and Meg Chapman A Framework for Communities Considering a Shift from Crisis Response to Crisis Prevention 2020 Steverman, Sarah, Elyse Yarmosky, Holly Swan, and Meg Chapman. “A Framework for Communities Considering a Shift from Crisis Response to Crisis Prevention.” Abt Associates, 2020.
https://www.abtassociates.com/files/insights/white-papers/2020/crisis-response_framework_wp.pdf.
The report presents a framework for communites seeking to shift orientation from crisis response to crisis prevention by building healthier communities. This shift focuses on moving from traditional emergency response to a behavioral
health system response. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance   Behavioral Health Reducing police response Community collaboration LC y   Resource
Tiffany Russell Dallas Works to Avoid Sending People in Crisis to Emergency Rooms or Jails 2020 Russell, Tiffany. “Dallas Works to Avoid Sending People in Crisis to Emergency Rooms or Jails.” The Pew Charitable Trusts, December 8, 2020.
https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2020/12/08/dallas-works-to-avoid-sending-people-in-crisis-to-emergency-rooms-or-jails.
In Dallas, Texas, RIGHT Care (Rapid Integrated Group Healthcare Team) is being piloted. Through collaboration of a multidisciplinary team of paramedics, police officers, and social workers, the program aims to divert individuals in
crisis from the justice system. A trained clinician in the 911 call center flags calls as involving a mental health crisis. The team supports these individuals by phone or in person and connects them to community-based services. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations   Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Community collaboration LC y   Resource
Khrysgiana Pineda You Can Call Me a Snitch’: 911 Dispatcher Had Concerns While Watching George Floyd’s Deadly Arrest 2020 Pineda, Khrysgiana. “‘You Can Call Me a Snitch’: 911 Dispatcher Had Concerns While Watching George Floyd’s Deadly Arrest.” USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, June 16, 2020.
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/06/16/george-floyd-911-dispatcher-had-concerns-over-cop-kneeled-neck/3197175001/.
This article examines the George Floyd 911 call from the 911 dispatchers perspective. The call transcript reveal the dispatcher’s skepticism and questioning of the violence inflicted. In addition, transcripts from 911 calls bystanders
made at the time confirm the dispatcher’s perspective.
Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports   Behavioral Health Police use of force   LC y   Resource
David Chang and Matt DeLucia VIDEO: Mother Tries to Restrain Son Moments Before He Was Shot, Killed by Police 2020 Chang, David, and Matt DeLucia. “VIDEO: Mother Tries to Restrain Son Moments Before He Was Shot, Killed by Police.” NBC 10 Philadelphia, October 27, 2020.
https://www.nbcphiladelphia.com/news/local/man-shot-and-killed-by-police-in-west-philadelphia/2574400/.
This article describes the events leading to Walter Wallace Jr’s death in police custody in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Police officials were called to the scene and provided information about a black individual with a weapon, that
would later be identified as a knife. After several demands from the officers to drop the weapon, police officers fired seven rounds resulting in Mr. Wallace’s death. After a video containing details of the death was shared publicly,
Philadelphia community members began protesting and demanding justice.
Other     Behavioral Health Police reform Police use of force LC y   Resource
Alex Blandford Reduce Criminal Justice Involvement for People with Behavioral Health Needs 2021 Blandford, Alex. “Reduce Criminal Justice Involvement for People with Behavioral Health Needs.” CSG Justice Center, June 15, 2021.
https://csgjusticecenter.org/publications/american-rescue-plan/explore-funding-opportunities/prevent-unnecessary-criminal-justice-involvement-for-people-with-behavioral-health-needs/.
As communities are searching for new ways to ensure public health and safety, the American Rescue Plan has provided more than $2 billion to invest in community crisis systems and diversion programs to assist individuals in crisis with
behavioral health issues. This article breaks down how ARP funding will be distributed with the end goal of reducing arrests and incarceration for people with behavioral health needs. Resources on alternative first responder programs, both
civilian and co-responder orientated, are included.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance   Behavioral Health Budget Community collaboration LC y   Resource
Anne Arundel County Volunteering Firefighters Association Stress and the 911 Dispatcher nd Anne Arundel County Volunteering Firefighters Association. “Stress and the 911 Dispatcher.” aacvfa.org, n.d. https://www.aacvfa.org/content/Chaplain/Stress_and_the_Dispatcher.pdf. This resource provides information about the stress 911 dispatchers experience while fulfilling their duties. Details on the types of stress 911 dispatchers experience are provided along with empirical resources. There is also
discussion about measures 911 dispatchers can take to ensure their health and wellbeing. This includes the S.T.R.E.S.S, a Self Care guide to help work through emotional problems.
PST Professionalism and Supports Call Handling Operations   Behavioral Health Call taker support Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Whitney Bunts Youth Mobile Response Services: An Investment to Decriminalize Mental Health 2021 Bunts, Whitney. “Youth Mobile Response Services: An Investment to Decriminalize Mental Health.” CLASP, April 12, 2021.
https://www.clasp.org/publications/report/brief/youth-mobile-response-services-investment-decriminalize-mental-health.
The report examines mobile crisis response teams as a law enforcement alternative to respond to 911 calls concerning mental health and social crisis. Authors examine mobile response teams implemented in Connecticut, Oklahoma, and
Oregon. Report suggest that cities must invest in police-free mental health responses, create their own point of entry, adequately train all staff involved in mobile response, not require mental health responders to have professional
degrees, make programs Medicaid reimbursable, and invest in a continuum of services to further assist individuals and prevent recurring calls.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs Governance Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Los Angeles County Alternatives to Incarceration Work Group Care First, Jail Last: Health and Racial Justice Strategies for Safer Communities 2020 Los Angeles County Alternatives to Incarceration Work Group. “Care First, Jail Last: Health and Racial Justice Strategies for Safer Communities.” Los Angeles County Alternatives to Incarceration Work Group, March 2020.
https://lacalternatives.org/reports/.
In 2019, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors passed a motion to bring together community advocates, service providers, staff and community members from multiple county departments to collaboratively develop a roadmap for
diverting people from jail into care. This collaborative group is known as the Alternatives to Incarceration (ATI) Work Group. Together the team is developing and approving diversion recommendations through a intensive consensus-building
process. At the date of the report, the ATI Work Group had developed 114 recommendations.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance Call Handling Operations Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Barry Friedman Amid Calls to ‘Defund,’ How to Rethink Policing 2020 Friedman, Barry. “Amid Calls to ‘Defund,’ How to Rethink Policing.” The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, June 13, 2020. https://www.wsj.com/articles/amid-calls-to-defund-how-to-rethink-policing-11592020861. With the death of George Floyd, community members have protested for change and specifically the defunding of police. This article examines the role of police officials in emergency calls involving behavioral health crisis. Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Budget Police reform Civilian Response Team LC y   Resource
Erin Durkin De Blasio Confirms He’ll Cut $1B from NYPD Budget 2020 Durkin, Erin. “De Blasio Confirms He’ll Cut $1B from NYPD Budget.” Politico PRO, June 29, 2020. https://www.politico.com/states/new-york/albany/story/2020/06/29/de-blasio-confirms-hell-cut-1b-from-nypd-budget-1295930. In New York, Mayor De Blasio has confirmed that one billion dollars will be cut from the NYPD budget and distributed to invest in school safety agents, building of youth recreation centers and public housing developments. Additionally,
Mayor De Blasio noted a shift in homeless outreach operations that will not involve the police.
Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Budget Unhoused population Reducing police response LC y   Resource
Rebecca Rainey Defund the Police? It’s Already Happening Thanks to the Covid-19 Budget Crunch 2020 Rainey, Rebecca, and Maya King. “Defund the Police? It’s Already Happening Thanks to the Covid-19 Budget Crunch.” POLITICO, August 20, 2020. https://www.politico.com/news/2020/08/15/defund-the-police-coronavirus-budget-395665. Due the pandemic, cities like San Francisco redirected $120 million from the city’s law enforcement to programs that would benefit African American communities. Similarly, Seattle has reallocated police funds towards youth and public
safety.
Governance Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)   Budget Reducing police response Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Lora Ueland Valley Communications Center 2019 Annual Report 2019 Ueland, Lora. “Valley Communications Center 2019 Annual Report.” Annual Reports – Valley Communications, 2019. https://www.valleycom.org/annual-reports.html. The Valley Communications Center 2019 Annual Report provides information about activities and accomplishments the center has had when answering 911 calls and dispatching emergency services to South King County residents. Report
outlines a strategic plan implementation, challenges the center faced, financial and operational performance, along with awards and employee recognition summaries.
Call Handling Operations Governance Data Research & KPIs Call taker procedures Budget   LC y   Resource
National 911 Program Guidelines for Developing a State NG911 Plan 2018 National 911 Program. “Guidelines for Developing a State NG911 Plan.” 911.gov, 2018. https://www.911.gov/pdf/DRAFT-Model-State-Plan-Guidelines_PUBLIC.pdf. This report discusses the capabilities of NG911 at the jurisdiction level by building upon secure services with open standards systems comprised of hardware, software, data and operational policies and procedures. Additionally, report
cites the Model State 911 Plan released by the National Association of State 911 Administrators (NASNA) as guidance toward helping states plan for the NG911 transition.
Governance Technology Call Handling Operations Call taker procedures Accessibility Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Betsy Brantner Smith The ‘Love/Hate’ Relationship between Cops and Their Dispatchers 2020 Smith, Betsy Brantner. “The ‘Love/Hate’ Relationship between Cops and Their Dispatchers.” Police1, April 15, 2020.
https://www.police1.com/police-products/police-technology/software/cad/articles/the-lovehate-relationship-between-cops-and-their-dispatchers-n2zBABGvXDFHcseM/.
This article characterizes interactions between police officers and 911 dispatchers as a “love/hate” relationship. Taking into consideration this dynamic, the author shares ideas for both police officers and dispatchers that would
facilitate crisis call response.
PST Professionalism and Supports     Call taker support Police reform   LC y   Resource
Danny Hobs The Role of the Public Safety Telecommunicator in COVID-19 Response 2020 Hobbs, Danny. “The Role of the Public Safety Telecommunicator in COVID-19 Response.” Police1, March 26, 2020.
https://www.police1.com/coronavirus-covid-19/articles/the-role-of-the-public-safety-telecommunicator-in-covid-19-response-CTaw46HfeKt3TA4U/.
Taking into consideration the vital role public safety telecommunicators play, it is essential that such individuals be knowledgeable about the pandemic. Author suggest that telecommunicators gain an understanding of the pandemic by
being remaining current on COVID-19 guidance, being included in the preparation of public health emergency response, and most importantly taking precautions to reduce coronavirus spread.
PST Professionalism and Supports Call Handling Operations Governance Call taker support Behavioral Health   LC y   Resource
Melissa Mann Should Dispatchers Be Officially Classified as First Responders? 2016 Mann, Melissa. “Should Dispatchers Be Officially Classified as First Responders?” Police1, September 19, 2016.
https://www.police1.com/police-products/communications/articles/should-dispatchers-be-officially-classified-as-first-responders-wVUyKz1lAZZtHnS8/.
Police, fire, and EMS dispatchers are widely considered vital emergency response personnel; in fact 911 call takers and dispatchers are the first point of contact for individuals in crisis and serve an essential role. In short, they
must triage the call, and code and gather information to send necessary aid. The 911 profession entails a great amount of emotional distress as individuals are dealing with crisis constantly. The author argues that 911 calltakers and
dispatchers are fit for the role and deserve recognition.
PST Professionalism and Supports Call Handling Operations   Call taker support Behavioral Health   LC y   Resource
Tim Hahn Fighting Crime during COVID: State, Erie Police Report Drop in Calls for Service 2020 Hahn, Tim. “Fighting Crime during COVID: State, Erie Police Report Drop in Calls for Service.” Erie Times-News, November 16, 2020.
https://www.goerie.com/story/news/crime/2020/11/16/state-erie-police-see-crime-reductions-during-covid-19-pandemic/5914122002/.
The Erie, Pennsylvania, police department has noted a significant decrease in calls for service categorized as robberies, fraud, sex offenses, burglaries and car crashes during the second and third quarters of 2020. On the other hand,
calls for service involving shootings, embezzlement, motor vehicle theft, drug cases, and domestic incidents have increased. The article examines this pattern and provides context.
Data Research & KPIs     Low-level crimes     LC y   Resource
National Institute for Criminal Justice Reform How Six Cities Across America Are Addressing Police Transformation 2020 National Institute for Criminal Justice Reform. “How Six Cities Across America Are Addressing Police Transformation.” 2020. https://nicjr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Six-Cities-Report.pdf This report dissects policing alternative innovations implemented in Albuquerque, New Mexico; Austin, Texas; Boston Massachusetts; Oakland, California; Portland, Oregon; and Washington DC. Information about approaches taken and related
reduction in police budget for efforts is provided.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance Call Handling Operations Civilian Response Team Behavioral Health Budget LC y   Resource
Mark Kramer; John Kania Collective Impact 2011 Kania, John, and Mark Kramer. “Collective Impact (SSIR).” Stanford Social Innovation Review: Informing and Inspiring Leaders of Social Change. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 2011.
https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collective_impact. 
This is a “starter kit” that discusses methods for creating change including social innovation, nonprofits and system leadership. This report highlights the importance of multidisciplanary approaches to solving problems or collective
impact as compared to isolated impact and focusing on one sector only. It suggests collecting data and measuring success consistently to ensure goals and actions remain aligned amongst various parties. ����It discusses types of
collaboration and examples of collective impact successes. The report covers how to fund and implement collective impact and what outcomes to expect.
Governance Data Research & KPIs   Community collaboration Data Policy recommendations LC Y https://senate.humboldt.edu/sites/default/files/senate/Chair%20Written%20Report%201-23-2018.pdf Resource
Mariame Kaba Thinking Through a World Without Police 2014 Kaba, Mariame. “Thinking Through a World Without Police.” Prison Culture, December 29, 2014. http://www.usprisonculture.com/blog/2014/12/29/thinking-through-the-end-of-police/. This article provides a list of resources on police alternatives, police history, and measures organization have taken towards abolishing police. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History   Health care continuum Police reform   LC y   Resource
Cynthia Lum Translational Criminology 2020 Lum, Cynthia, and David Weisburd. “Translational Criminology Fall 2020.” Fairfax: The Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy,
2020. https://cebcp.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/TC19-Fall2020.pdf.
This is the fall 2020 issue of Translational Criminology magazine and notably contains a framework of emergency response approaches to vulnerable populations, harm-reduction in policing and the role of research partnerships for
reforming policing in Scotland. It also features international articles on criminal justice research, practice, and policy. Articles topics include perspectives from a deputy chief, data usage by police in São Paulo, Brazil, policing
research in crisis and other relevant subjects.
Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance Police reform Community collaboration Call taker procedures LC Y   Resource
Katya Fels Smyth 911 And Racism: When The Emergency Response Fuels The Emergency 2021 Smyth, Katya Fels. “911 And Racism: When The Emergency Response Fuels The Emergency.”
Forbes. Forbes Magazine, March 10, 2021. https://www.forbes.com/sites/katyafelssmyth/2021/03/08/911-and-racism-when-the-emergency-response-fuels-the-emergency/?sh=7e1277ff75c1 
After the American Public Health Association declared racism a public health emergency, individuals have been taking a closer look at infrastructures that perpetrated said racism. By taking a look at 911’s racist roots it quickly
becomes evident that transformation is necessary and overdue to ensure equitable emergency response.
911 History Governance   Police reform Behavioral Health Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Nick Evans After 2 Black Men Are Killed By Police, Columbus Demands A Reckoning 2021 Evans, Nick. “After 2 Black Men Are Killed By Police, Columbus Demands A Reckoning.” NPR, January 21,
2021. https://www.npr.org/2021/01/21/959107227/after-2-black-men-are-killed-by-police-columbus-demands-a-reckoning 
In Columbus, Ohio, news has surfaced of two black men who were killed by police officers in December 2020. This article joins the conversation about police reform by taking into consideration the case in Columbus. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History Governance Police reform Reducing police response Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Conor Friedersdorf Apply Broken-Windows Theory to the Police 2020 Friedersdorf, Conor. “Apply Broken-Windows Theory to the Police.” The Atlantic. June 19,
2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/06/apply-broken-windows-theory-police/613186/
Police misconduct has become an important point of discussion concerning police reform. The author suggests that the broken-windows theory of policing be also applied to police culture, to ensure behavior regulation and accountability.
Article follows how the implementation of the broken-windows theory has led to overpolicing, and how police culture has enabled such provincial views of the justice system.
Governance 911 History   Police reform Low-level crimes Reducing police response LC y   Resource
Mark Obbie Looking for Innovative Policing Solutions? You Can Find Them Here 2020 Obbie, Mark. “Looking for Innovative Policing Solutions? You Can Find Them Here.” The Crime Report, August 7,
2020. https://thecrimereport.org/2020/08/06/looking-for-innovative-policing-solutions-you-can-find-them-here/
With the surge of community members calling to defund the police, journalists have published articles discussing police misconduct, accountability, and civilian alternative first responder programs. This article cites various resources
dealing with aforementioned topics in addition to sources providing information about criminal justice.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History Governance Police reform Civilian Response Team Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Ted Gest NYU Experts Offer ‘Evidence-Based’ Smart Policing Plan 2020 Gest, Ted. “NYU Experts Offer ‘Evidence-Based’ Smart Policing Plan.” The Crime Report, December 1,
2020. https://thecrimereport.org/2020/12/01/nyu-experts-offer-evidence-based-smart-policing-plan/
This article discusses NYU School of Law’s recent report on smart policing under the Biden administration. The report concludes that more policing, prosecution, and incarceration will not equate to public safety. In fact, this
tough-on-crime tactic has substantially increased incarceration rates for communities of color, while failing to improve public safety. The correlation between prosecution and public safety is nonexistent, and the report suggests that the
government develop factual community-based strategies with substantial transparency, redirect policy towards prevention and accountability, and provide community members with the adequate tools to ensure public safety policies are
fulfilled.
Governance Data Research & KPIs   Police reform Community collaboration   LC y   Resource
The Editorial Board The N.Y.P.D. Has Rejected Reform for Decades. It Can’t Anymore. 2020 The Editorial Board. “The N.Y.P.D. Has Rejected Reform for Decades. It Can’t Anymore.” The New York Times, July 13,
2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/13/opinion/nypd-reform-nyc.html
The NYPD’s response to protests in summer 2020 was detrimental to community safety, putting the lives of individuals at risk and inflicting unnecessary harm. This article mentions tactics used by the NYPD during protests, conditions of
arrests, and the incident involving De Blasio’s daughter, Chiara de Blasio. There is discussion about legislation implemented in 1993 that developed a civilian review board to review police misconduct and banned officers from using
chokeholds against civilians. However, both pieces of legislation have been voided in recent years. Taking this into account, New York’s City Council has approved several new police reform bills.
Governance     Police reform Police use of force   LC y   Resource
Christine M Cole and Charles H Ramsey What Defunding the Police Really Looks Like 2020 Cole, Christine M, and Charles H Ramsey. “What Defunding the Police Really Looks Like.” The Washington Post. June 11, 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/06/10/how-move-having-police-force-police-service/. This article provides context and details about what defunding the police really means for a community. Defunding the police entails investing in reconnecting communities, monitoring of inappropriate behavior, and routinely reviewing
policies and practices. Cited works include a resource by the Crime and Justice Institute that provides suggestions to assist law enforcement leaders in strengthening their department through a “constitutional lens,” and the President’s
Task Force on 21s Century Policing report which dives into research involving the impact of policing on communities of color and recommendations for building trust and legitimacy.
Data Research & KPIs Governance   Police reform Reducing police response Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Fola Akinnibi US Mayors’ Group Opposes Police Defunding Efforts While Urging Reform 2020 Akinnibi, Fola. “US Mayors’ Group Opposes Police Defunding Efforts While Urging Reform.” Bloomberg, August 13, 2020.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-08-13/u-s-mayors-group-opposes-defunding-efforts-while-urging-reform.
The U.S. Conference of Mayors has released a report making recommendations for police reform while not supporting the idea of defunding the police. Instead, stakeholders are suggesting that cities fund both traditional policing and
social services to ensure public safety. While not all mayors hold this opinion, many have resisted implementing legislation that takes budget cuts from law enforcement.
Governance     Police reform Budget Health care continuum LC y   Resource
Gordon Witkin The Vexing Obstacle to Police Reform: A Cop’s Miserable Life 2021 Witkin, Gordon. “The Vexing Obstacle to Police Reform: A Cop’s Miserable Life.” Washington Monthly, July 14, 2021. https://washingtonmonthly.com/2021/07/14/the-vexing-obstacle-to-police-reform-a-cops-miserable-life/. This article comes from the perspective of a police officer discussing the “us vs. them” mentality present in the 911 emergency response system. Witkin proposes that “bad cops” do not start this way, but transform into these
individuals as they become more cynical in reaction to experiences in the system. The author also highlights that response time is used as a key metric in police pay and promotions. The focus on this metric means that officers have little
time to interact with citizens, which distances them from the community and builds upon the aforementioned mentality. There is also discussion about the tight labor market and frequency with which police officers are resigning, especially
after the George Floyd murder.
Governance     Police reform On-scene response Inadequate police staffing LC y   Resource
Sophia Barnes Spotsylvania Deputy Shoots Man; Virginia State Police Investigating 2021 Barnes, Sophia. “Spotsylvania Deputy Shoots Man; Virginia State Police Investigating.” NBC4 Washington, April 22, 2021.
https://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local/northern-virginia/spotsylvania-deputy-shoots-man-while-investigating-domestic-disturbance-authorities/2647289/.
When responding to domestic disturbance call, a Spotsylvania County sheriff’s deputy shot a man named Isaiah L. Brown. The incident began as Brown was walking home and encountered the deputy who tried to talk to him. Investigation on
the case is still ongoing and will be turned to the Fredericksburg Commonwealth’s Attorney for review.
911 History     Police use of force Low-level crimes   LC y   Resource
Aaron Rose What To Do Instead of Calling the Police 2016 Aaron Rose. “What To Do Instead of Calling the Police.” 2016.
https://communityresourcehub.org/resources/what-to-do-instead-of-calling-the-police-a-guide-a-syllabus-a-conversation-a-process/
This syllabus provides resources on alternatives to policing, including both practical and theoretical measures. Resources include alternatives to calling the police, innovations implemented as alternative response to crisis calls,
apps for coordinated crisis response, and works describing the history of racism and police.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History   Community collaboration Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team LC y   Resource
Lauren Curatolo, Tom Harris, Brenda Rosen, and Ashwin Vasan Opinion: As Times Square Makes a Comeback, It’s Time to Help Those Still Struggling 2021 Curatolo, Lauren, Tom Harris, Brenda Rosen, and Ashwin Vasan. “Opinion: As Times Square Makes a Comeback, It’s Time to Help Those Still Struggling.” City Limits, June 11, 2021.
https://citylimits.org/2021/06/11/opinion-as-times-square-makes-a-comeback-its-time-to-help-those-still-struggling/.
As New York lifts pandemic regulations, homeless populations are growing and having negative interactions with the criminal justice system. To address this, community members have created a coalition called Community First. This
initiative aims to build relationships with vulnerable individuals to address what is preventing people from accepting social services and link them to needed support. So far the team has assisted 130 individuals, and aims to expand and
prove itself promising to New York residents.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Unhoused population Community collaboration Reducing police response LC y   Resource
John Ismay Supervisor Had Netflix Playing During Botched 911 Call 2019 Ismay, John. “Supervisor Had Netflix Playing During Botched 911 Call.” The New York Times, November 5, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/05/us/911-call-supervisor-netflix.html. Police investigation in Coral Springs, Florida, involving shooting has faulted 911 call supervisor who was watching Netflix when Guadalupe Herrera called 911. As widely know, crisis calls are extremely time sensitive as a minute wait
could dictate the life of an individual at risk. While article discusses the lack of leadership in the police department, it highlights on a larger issue of lack of accountability and policy enforcement. 
Call Handling Operations     Police reform Call taker procedures   LC Y   Resource
Mimi Kim Creative Interventions Toolkit: A Practical Guide to Stop Interpersonal Violence 2020 Kim, Mimi. “Creative Interventions Toolkit: A Practical Guide to Stop Interpersonal Violence.” Creative Interventions, August 2018.
https://www.creative-interventions.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/CI-Toolkit-Final-ENTIRE-Aug-2020-new-cover.pdf
This is a survivor-centered resource that offers a roadmap for restorative justice and community accountability-based tools. It provides frameworks for anti-oppression programming and interventions as well as tools for personal
wellbeing.
Other     Accessibility Police reform   OF Y topic: alternatives to the criminal justice system Resource
911.gov 5 Ways NG11 Can Improve your Agency 2019 Reyes, Eddie. “5 Ways NG911 Can Improve Your Agency.” Next Generation 911 for Leaders in Law Enforcement. Next Generation 911, October
17, 2019. https://www.911.gov/project_ng911publicsafety/law/5_ways_ng911_can_improve_your_agency.html
This resource discusses the need for an improved 911 system that can accommodate multiple forms of media in order to create a more complete picture of the incident and dispatch the necessary emergency services. They propose the usage
of Next Generation 911, which is new technology that allows the public to send digital data—such as videos, images and texts—to 911 call centers or public safety answering points (PSAPs). Additionally, NG911 technology enables call and
data transfer among PSAPs to improve the 911 system’s capacity and accuracy. The benefits of this new system include improving officer safety, enhancing location accuracy, increasing the speed of emergency services, saving costs, and
making law enforcement smarter
Call Handling Operations Technology   Accessibility Call taker procedures Budget OF Y   Resource
Robert K. Ross Care First, Jails Last: Health and Racial Justice Strategies for Safer Communities 2020 Ross, Robert K. “Care First, Jails Last: Health and Racial Justice Strategies for Safer Communities.” Los Angeles
County: Los Angeles County Alternatives to Incarceration Work Group, October 2020. https://ceo.lacounty.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/1077045_AlternativestoIncarcerationWorkGroupFinalReport.pdf.
This report details Los Angeles County’s diversion plans, specifically its goals around creating social service frameworks to keep people out of prisons and living in their communities. It was created using evidence-based research and
the feedback from system leaders and experts as well as those in the community who have been harmed by the system. It includes a roadmap of 114 recommendations on how to change the criminal justice system and it explains how mental health
and behavioral health opportunities for intervention and support represent the cornerstone of care.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs Governance Behavioral Health Health care continuum Reducing police response OF Y   Resource
Robert Bobb, Christy Lopez Decentering Police to Improve Public Safety: A Report of the DC Police Reform Commission 2021 Bobb, Robert, and Christy
Lopez. “Decentering Police to Improve Public Safety: A Report of the DC Police Reform Commission.” Washington D.C.: District of Columbia Police Reform Commission, April 1,
2021. https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/dd0059be-3e43-42c6-a3df-ec87ac0ab3b3/DC%20Police%20Reform%20Commission%20-%20Full%20Report.pdf?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=c3749cf9-a3d7-4d0e-8e4f-ba4b68cfba9c.
This report details the ways in which police can be removed from the community including having alternative crisis responders, decriminalizing poverty and removing police from schools. The results in this report were the product of
government officials and other stakeholders, including community members, providing guidance and feedback. The recommendations cover a wide range of issues like making behavioral healthcare professionals and other specialists the default
first responders instead of police.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs   Behavioral Health Police reform Community collaboration OF Y   Resource
Betsy Pearl, Amos Irwin The Community Responder Model 2020 Pearl, Betsy, and Amos Irwin. “The Community Responder Model.” Center for American Progress. Center for American Progress, October 28, 2020.
https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/criminal-justice/reports/2020/10/28/492492/community-responder-model/. 
This report outlines the impetus for developing an alternative response program as well as proposes a model in which civilian first-responders address lower-risk 911 calls related to issues ranging from mental health crises to noise
complaints. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs   Behavioral Health Reducing police response Civilian Response Team OF Y   Resource
Kim Foxx, Garry McFadden, Stephanie Morales, Marilyn Mosby,  Rachael Rollins Building Safe Thriving Communities: Research-Based Strategies for Public Safety 2020 Foxx, Kim, Garry McFadden, Stephanie Morales, Marilyn Mosby, and Rachael Rollins. “Building Safe Thriving Communities: Research-Based Strategies for Public Safety.”
https://www.law.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/Public%20Safety%20Report%20-%20Final%20EMBARGOED-2_508.pdf. NYU School of Law Center on Race, Inequality, and the Law, October 2020.
https://www.law.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/Public%20Safety%20Report%20-%20Final%20EMBARGOED-2_508.pdf. 
This document is a compilation of all the policies surrounding police reform around the country and how they have contributed to improvements to public safety. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)         Police reform OF Y   Resource
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Adminstration (SAMHSA) National Guidelines for Behavioral Health Crisis Care – Best Practice Toolkit 2020 SAMHSA. “National Guidelines for Behavioral Health Crisis Care – Best Practice Toolkit.” Rockville: Substance Abuse
and Mental Health Services Adminstration, 2020. https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/national-guidelines-for-behavioral-health-crisis-care-02242020.pdf 
This toolkit details program design, development, implementation, and continuous quality improvement efforts for crisis care and is designed to assist professionals in the public health sector to structure crisis systems to meet
community needs. This toolkit is intended to help mental health authorities, agency administrators, service providers, and state and local leaders think through and develop the structure of crisis systems that meet community needs. It
defines national guidelines in crisis care, provides recommendations for implementing care that align with the guidelines, and describes tools to evaluate systems. The toolkit was designed using input from crisis system practitioners and
administrators as well as community members who rely on these systems.
Governance Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Behavioral Health Call taker procedures Health care continuum OF Y   Resource
APCO International Crisis Intervention Techniques and Call Handling Procedures for Public Safety Telecommunicators 2020 APCO International. “Crisis Intervention Techniques and Call Handling Procedures for Public Safety Telecommunicators.” 2020.
https://www.apcointl.org/download/crisis-intervention-techniques-and-call-handling-procedures-for-public-safety-telecommunicators/
This document serves as a guide for public safety telecommunicators, or PSTs, on how to better answer calls of service concerning mental health. Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports   Behavioral Health   Call taker support OF Y   Resource
Lora Ueland Valley Communications Center 2019 Annual Report 2019 Ueland, Lora. “Valley Communications Center 2019 Annual Report.” Kent: Valley Communications Center, 2019. https://www.valleycom.org/docs/2019AnnualReport.pdf This report details the activities and achievements of the Valley Communication Center (serving South King County residents, workers and public safety agencies). It covers metrics including but not limited to quality assurance,
employee retention and average call occupation time. It also includes a scorecard, updates on strategic planning implementation, and positive updates and achievements.
Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports Data Research & KPIs Call taker procedures Call taker support Budget OF Y https://www.valleycom.org/annual-reports.html (2019 report) Resource
Lora Ueland Valley Communications Center 2020 Annual Report 2020 Ueland, Lora. “Valley Communications Center 2020 Annual Report.” Valley Communications Center. Valley Communications Center, 2020. https://valleycom.org/docs/2020AnnualReport-final.pdf.  This report details the activities and achievements of the Valley Communication Center (serving South King County residents, workers and public safety agencies). It covers metrics including but not limited to quality assurance,
employee retention and average call occupation time.
Data Research & KPIs Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports Call taker procedures Call taker support   OF Y   Resource
Lora Ueland, Vonnie Mayer, Melinda Wilde, Sheryl Kowalczik, Jeff Valdanbrini, Austin Haynes Next Generation Valley Com: Roadmap 2023 2018 Ueland, Lora, Vonnie Mayer, Melinda Wilde, Sheryl Kowalczik, Jeff Valdanbrini, and Austin Haynes. “Next Generation Valley Com: Roadmap 2023.” Valley Communications Center. Valley Communications Center, 2018.
https://www.valleycom.org/docs/VCCStrategicPlan2018.pdf. 
This report outlines the Valley Communication Center’s goals for the next five years (post the report being written) in the realms of public safety governance and communication, trust and team-building, current and future services, new
technologies and data management and access
Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports Technology Call taker procedures Call taker support   OF Y   Resource
Frankie Wunschel; Daniel Bodah A New Way of 911 Call Taking: Criteria Based Dispatching 2020 Wunschel, Frankie, and Daniel Bodah. “A New Way of 911 Call Taking: Criteria Based Dispatching.” Vera Institute of Justice, December
2020. https://www.vera.org/publications/a-new-way-of-911-call-taking
This review looks at the use of criteria based dispatching in the public health sector. CBD focuses on the level of and urgency of care needed by categorizing call types together and creating guidelines for the call takers to determine
what type of care is needed. Although a majority of data exists within the medical response space, CBD shows promise for the police dispatch system, but it will require a restructuring of the current system to make way for alternative
responders.
Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations Call taker procedures Police reform On-scene response OF Y   Resource
Federal Communications Commission FCC Master PSAP Registry 2020 “FCC Master PSAP Registry.” Federal Communications Commission, July 30, 2021. https://www.fcc.gov/general/9-1-1-master-psap-registry This spreadsheet lists all of the public safety answering points, or PSAPs, across the country and any changes that have made to them. Call Handling Operations     Call taker procedures     OF Y   Resource
National Emergency Number Association (NENA), 9-1-1 Call Processing Working Group NENA Standard for 9-1-1 Call Processing 2020 NENA PSAP Operations Committee, and 9-1-1 Call Processing Working Group. “NENA Standard for 9-1-1 Call Processing.” Alexandria: National Emergency Number Association (NENA), April
16, 2020. https://www.nena.org/page/CallProcessingStnd
This guide hopes to provide standardization of call answering procedures called standing operating procedures (SOP) by PSAPs. It also provides recommendations for implementing these procedures. Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports   Call taker procedures Call taker support   OF Y   Resource
NENA PSAP Operations Committee, NG9-1-1 Call Processing Working Group, Agency Systems Committee NG9-1-1 Call Processing Metrics Standard 2018 NENA PSAP Operations Committee, NG9-1-1 Call Processing Working Group, and Agency Systems Committee. “NG9-1-1 Call Processing Metrics Standard.” Alexandria: National Emergency Number
Association (NENA), July 2, 2018. https://www.nena.org/page/NG_CallProcMetrics
This guide details standardized NG9-1-1 call processing metrics to calculate statistics so that independent implementations can derive the same comparable measurements.  Call Handling Operations Data Research & KPIs   Call taker procedures     OF Y   Resource
Aaron Rose What To Do Instead of Calling the Police: A Guide, A Syllabus, A Conversation, A Process 2019 Rose, Aaron. “What To Do Instead of Calling the Police: A Guide, A Syllabus, A Conversation, A Process.”
Artist Trust. Artist Trust, July 17, 2019. https://artisttrust.org/resources/what-to-do-instead-of-calling-the-police-a-guide-a-syllabus-a-conversation-a-process/. 
This is a collection of resources that broadly cover the racist history of policing, alternatives to police response, including formal alternatives run through non-profits or state-based operations, as well as interpersonal/community
strategies
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History   Civilian Response Team Reducing police response Community collaboration OF Y   Resource
Marco Werman Stockholm’s Mental Health Ambulance Could Help the US Rethink Policing 2020 Werman, Marco. “Stockholm’s Mental Health Ambulance Could Help the US Rethink Policing.” The World. PRX, September 10,
2020. https://www.pri.org/stories/2020-09-10/stockholms-mental-health-ambulance-could-help-rethink-policing-us. 
This is an interview with the managing director of North Stockholm Psychiatry, who helped create the mental health ambulance service there. An overview of Stockholm’s psychiatric ambulance service and the impact it has had on the
community it services is provided.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Civilian Response Team On-scene response Behavioral Health OF Y   Resource
Meg Chapman, Sarah Steverman,  Elyse Yarmosky, Holly Swan, Samantha Karon, Puneet Kaur, Daniel Smith A Guidebook to Reimagining America’s Crisis Response Systems 2020 Chapman, Meg, Holly Swan, Samantha Karon, Elyse Yarmosky, Sarah Steverman, Puneet Kaur, and Daniel Smith. “A Guidebook to Reimagining America’s Crisis Response Systems.” ABT Associates. ABT Associates, September 2020.
https://www.abtassociates.com/files/Projects/PDFs/2020/reimagining-crisis-response_20200911-final.pdf. 
This is a guidebook for policymakers and emergency response agencies considering implementing or expanding crisis response programs in their communities. This is a decision making framework that explains different program models at
Intercept 1 and the subtypes within those models. The authors describe specific programs around the country that are examples of these types (Like CIT and CAHOOTS) in order to demonstrate how different programs are operationalizing the
same program components in their communities, in some cases, borrowing from more developed programs to tailor to the needs of their communities.
 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations   Co-responder program Civilian Response Team Call taker procedures OF Y   Resource
Thomas Wieczorek Oakland,CA Police Data Analyses Report 2020 Wieczorek, Thomas. “Police Data Analyses Report: Oakland, CA.” Oakland: Center for Public Safety Management, December
2020. https://cao-94612.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/CPSM-Oakland-CFS-Report-Dec-2020.pdf
This is a massive data analysis/breakdown of Oakland calls for service and police responses, including response times and number of responding units.  Data Research & KPIs     On-scene response     OF Y   Resource
Michael Planty, Grace Kena Measuring Resident Perceptions of Police and Community Safety: Findings from the Local-Area Crime Survey 2021 Planty, Michael, and Grace Kena. “Measuring Resident Perceptions of Police and Community Safety: Findings
from the Local-Area Crime Survey.” Rockville: Westat, April 2021. https://www.ojp.gov/library/publications/measuring-resident-perceptions-police-and-community-safety-findings-local-area
This report presents the findings from a survey that measured perceptions of police and community safety that was fielded in 40 metropolitan areas. They hope these results will give insight into local patterns of crime and reporting to
the police. 
Data Research & KPIs     Public opinion Community collaboration   OF Y   Resource
Joseph E. Brann, Robert H. Langworthy Measuring What Matters: Proceedings from the Policing Research Institute Meetings 1999 Brann, Joseph E, and Robert H Langworthy. “Measuring What Matters: Proceedings from the Policing Research Institute Meetings.” Washington D.C.: U.S.
Department of Justice, July 1999. https://www.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh241/files/media/document/170610-1.pdf
This is a report by the DOJ about determining key metric indicators in policing/emergency response. It is a compilation of discussion papers that detail the results of three meetings called “Measuring What Matters.” The meetings were
based on these topics: “Measuring What Matters in Policing,” “How Higher Expectations for Police Departments Can Lead to a Decrease in Crime” and “A New Way of Thinking About Crime and Public Order.”
Data Research & KPIs Governance   Police reform On-scene response Community collaboration OF Y   Resource
Margie Balfour Report of the Tucson Sentinel Event Review Board (SERB) on the Deaths in Custody of Mr. Damien Alvarado and Mr. Carlos Adrian Ingram-Lopez 2020 Balfour, Margie. “Report of the Tucson Sentinel Event Review Board (SERB) on the Deaths in Custody of Mr. Damien Alvarado and Mr.
Carlos Adrian Ingram-Lopez.” Tuscon: Tuscon Sentinel Event Review Board , September 18, 2020. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/files/police/SERB/In_Custody_SERB_Final_Report_Sept_2020_Redacted.pdf
This report summarizes what was identified in the 2020 review by the Tucson Sentinel Event Review Board (“the SERB”) into the deaths of Mr. Damien Alvarado and Mr. Carlos Adrian Ingram-Lopez while in the custody of the Tucson Police
Department (TPD) and why the TPD failed to timely disclose one of the deaths to the Tucson community. The SERB consists of a variety of stakeholders, including members of the community, government officials, and those who work in emergency
services. The report details contributing factors to the deaths and related recommendations, like improving call-taker training to address language barriers and behavioral health crises. 
Call Handling Operations PST Professionalism and Supports   Police reform Behavioral Health Call taker procedures OF Y   Resource
Giffords Law Center In Pursuit of Peace: Building Police-Community Trust to Break the Cycle of Violence 2020 Giffords Law Center. “In Pursuit of Peace: Building Police-Community Trust to Break the Cycle of
Violence.” Giffords Law Center. January 17, 2020. https://giffords.org/lawcenter/report/in-pursuit-of-peace-building-police-community-trust-to-break-the-cycle-of-violence/. 
This is a summary of a report that examines the intersection of community trust, policing, and gun violence. It details the cycle of distrust of law enforcement and violence and why it is crucial that law enforcement win back community
trust. It explains that when communities deal with excessive use of force for low-level infractions, trust in police erodes.
Data Research & KPIs     Police reform Police use of force Low-level crimes OF Y   Resource
Department of Homeland Security Plain Language Guide: Making the Transition from Ten Codes to Plain Language SAFECOM. “Plain Language Guide: Making the Transition from Ten Codes to Plain Language.” Washington D.C.: Department of Homeland Security,
n.d. https://www.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/PlainLanguageGuide.pdf 
This article urges police departments to transition away from using 10-code for communications towards plain language in order to increase interoperability between departments. Additionally, plain language simplifies the communication
process and reduces the chance of error during an emergency situation. They recommend 4 steps in order to implement/transition to plain language: assess, plan, equip and train and use.
Call Handling Operations     Police reform   Call taker procedures OF Y   Resource
Erika Harrell, Elizabeth Davis Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2018 – Statistical Tables 2020 Harrell, Erika, and Elizabeth Davis. “Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2018 – Statistical Tables.” Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice, December 2020.
https://bjs.ojp.gov/library/publications/contacts-between-police-and-public-2018-statistical-tables 
The document shares the statistics from the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ 2018 Police-Public Contact Survey (PPCS) about the interactions between the police and the public/community they serve.  Data Research & KPIs       On-scene response Public opinion OF Y   Resource
Meg Chapman, Sarah Steverman,  Elyse Yarmosky, Holly Swan A Framework for Communities Considering a Shift from Crisis Response to Crisis Prevention 2020 Steverman, Sarah, Elyse Yarmosky, Holly Swan, and Meg Chapman. “A Framework for Communities Considering a Shift from Crisis Response to Crisis Prevention.” ABT Associates. ABT Associates, 2020.
https://www.abtassociates.com/files/insights/white-papers/2020/crisis-response_framework_wp.pdf. 
ABT presents a framework intended to aid communities in understanding approaches to addressing behavioral health crises and identify potential next steps to shift the focus to prevention and behavioral health. This article explains the
Sequential Intercept Model (SIM), a framework to identify where crises can be diverted along 6 intercepts. ABT describes a state at Intercept 0, in which communities can aspire, which includes infrequent need for crisis response due to the
robust health, housing, and safety infrastructure and preventative programs and policies. This is a framework that “includes seven areas of change: crisis-related calls for service, crisis response, social services availability and
capacity, coordination and integration of community-based services, proactive outreach, policy, and training.”
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations   Reducing police response Behavioral Health Health care continuum OF Y   Resource
Meg Chapman, Melissa Nadel, Sarah Steverman,   Elyse Yarmosky, Holly Swan Reimagining America’s Crisis Response System for Vulnerable Populations: Knowledge Gaps and Areas for Investment 2020 Swan, Holly, Meg Chapman, Elyse Yarmosky, Melissa Nadel, and Sarah Steverman. “Reimagining America’s Crisis Response System for Vulnerable Populations: Knowledge Gaps and Areas for Investment.” ABT Associates. ABT Associates, September
2020. https://www.abtassociates.com/files/insights/white-papers/2020/crisis-response_knowledge-gaps-wp_v2.pdf. 
This report details outstanding questions with regards to how jurisdictions should approach implementing alternative response systems. ABT conducted a study whose results informed the development of a decision-making framework in
crisis-response. ABT summarizes the types of existing emergency response models and suggests the best opportunities for future investment in research to fill evidence gaps and in jurisdictions’ reform efforts. They provide an overview of
the current state and issues in the U.S. crisis response system, including social determinants of health that lead to many crisis-related calls. The types of responder-led response programs they identified were 1) outreach and prevention;
2) intervention at 911 call; and 3) intervention by first responders at the scene of a crisis (like CIT).
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs Call Handling Operations Reducing police response Police reform Call taker procedures OF Y   Resource
Prison Culture Thinking Through the End of Police 2014 “Thinking Through the End of Police.” Prison Culture. Prison Culture, December 29, 2014. http://www.usprisonculture.com/blog/2014/12/29/thinking-through-the-end-of-police/.  This is a collection of resources for those curious about police abolition, most of which explain why police abolition is called for and others that outline what a world without police would look like. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Reducing police response Police reform Community collaboration OF Y   Resource
Betsy Pearl Beyond Policing: Investing in Offices of Neighborhood Safety 2020 Pearl, Betsy. “Beyond Policing: Investing in Offices of Neighborhood Safety.” Center for
American Progress. Center for American Progress, October 15, 2020. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/criminal-justice/reports/2020/10/15/491545/beyond-policing-investing-offices-neighborhood-safety/. 
This report starts by providing an overview of the current climate of policing and community sentiments to it: many want to divest from policing and into organizations that actually address public safety and wellness. Then it provides
a roadmap for jurisdictions seeking to create a Civilian Office of Neighborhood Safety that offers resources for community public safety efforts. This can be used by city governments to assess the types of proven programs that can be
implemented, how to manage staffing and funding, and how a community’s approach to safety is shown through these programs.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs Governance Reducing police response Budget Community collaboration OF Y   Resource
Thomas Wieczorek Oakland 911 Analysis Summary 2020 Wieczorek, Thomas. “Oakland 911 Analysis Summary.” Oakland: Center For Public Safety Management, December
2020. https://cao-94612.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/CPSM-Oakland-CFS-Report-Dec-2020.pdf
This is an analysis conducted by the Center for Public Safety Management on the calls for services received by the Oakland Police Department to determine which calls might be appropriate for an alternative response. The analysis
focuses on workload, deployment and response times. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations Data Research & KPIs Reducing police response On-scene response Call taker procedures OF Y   Resource
Interrupting Criminalization Initiative #DefundPolice Toolkit Interrupting Criminalization. “#DefundPolice Toolkit.” Member for Black Lives,
n.d. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5ee39ec764dbd7179cf1243c/t/5f85c35e177b56179c78495c/1602601833821/Defund+Toolkit.pdf
This toolkit defines the defund movement and its demands and offers concrete steps toward diverting resources while addressing the implications of doing so. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Reducing police response Police reform Budget OF Y   Resource
Philip V. McHarris CRH Research Memo: Alternatives to Policing 2020 McHarris, Philip V. “CRH Alternatives to Policing Research Memo.” Community Resource Hub for Safety and Accountability, October
2020. https://communityresourcehub.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/CRH_Alternative_Memo_Final.pdf
This memo assesses reviews of alternatives to policing in the context of police abolitionist frameworks while highlighting on successful innovations. Substantial recommendations on alternatives to policing are provided as well. There
is discussion about types of advocacy. According to the memo, types of advocacy are distinguished by their goals. Some advocacy groups want to abolish the entire policing system while some advocacy groups want to establish a new response
framework by defunding the police and instead investing in alternatives.         
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs   Reducing police response Police reform Budget OF Y   Resource
Kevin Baldwin; Shila René Hawk Report of Analysis of 911 Calls for Service to Inform Pre-Arrest Diversion and Other Expansion Efforts 2020 Baldwin, Kevin, and Shila René Hawk. “Report of
Analysis of 911 Calls for Service to Inform Pre-Arrest Diversion AndOther Expansion Efforts.” Atlanta: Applied Research Services, Inc., October 14,
2020. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5e9dddf40c5f6f43eacf969b/t/5fa5aa988c0b0b033f1e2104/1604692636402/Atlanta+Fulton+County+PAD+-+Study+of+911+Calls+for+Service+Report.pdf
This is a data analysis of call for service, with the aim of identifying which/how many calls could warrant an alternative response.  Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs   Reducing police response     OF Y   Resource
AH Datalytics Assessment of Austin Police Department Calls for Service 2020 AH Datalytics. “Assessment of Austin Police Department Calls for Service.” Austin: Austin Justice Coalition, July
2020. https://austinjustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Analysis-of-Austin-Police-Department-Calls-for-Service-3.pdf
This is a data analysis of call for service for the Austin Police Department, focusing on how calls are categorized when they are received.  Call Handling Operations Data Research & KPIs     Call taker procedures   OF Y   Resource
Rafik Nader Wahbi , Sterling Johnson , Leo Beletsky  FROM CRISIS RESPONSE TO HARM PREVENTION: The Role of Integrated Service Facilities 2020 Wahbi Nader Rafik, et al. ‘FROM CRISIS RESPONSE TO HARM PREVENTION: The Role of Integrated Service Facilities’.Northeastern University School of Law Research Paper No.
388-2020, The Justice Collaborative, Data for Progress, Health in Justice Action Lab, September 2020. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3685890
Even if alternative police systems are paid attention to, in cases where mental health services, medical help, or shelter homes are required, there aren’t many options to take people in place of police stations or emergency rooms.
Integrated Service Facilities (ISFs)  is one of such services which has a 24/7 open door policy which provides collaborative and holistic services providing medicines, cognitive behavior therapy and allied services all at one place.
The ISFs are aimed at reducing police response, prevent frequent utilizers and aim at preventing crises from happening. Expansion of ISFs is a good way to solve for low level crimes. 
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire)     Low-level crimes Behavioral Health Reducing police response   Y   Resource
Josiah Bates Criminal Justice Researchers Studied Over 4 Million 911 Calls. Here’s How Their Findings Could Influence Calls for Police Reform 2021 Josiah Bates. Criminal Justice Researchers Studied Over 4 Million 911 Calls. Here’s How Their Findings Could Influence Calls for Police Reform. Time Magazine, 2021.
https://time.com/6090633/911-calls-criminal-justice-study-defund-police/
This article describes a study by Cynthia Lum and others that analyzed call types made to police in 9 large and smaller cities for 2016/2017. Around 4.3 million calls were studied. This study sought to address the defund the police
movement and identify what kinds of calls officers actually respond to. The article describes the current push to defund the police and the findings of the study which show that most calls are for traffic violations and public disorder and
very few calls are for mental health related incidents.
Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Budget Police reform Reducing police response CM     Resource
Eric Rafla-Yuan et al. Decoupling Crisis Response from Policing – A Step Toward Equitable Psychiatric Emergency Services 2021 Rafla-Yuan, Eric, Divya K. Chhabra, and Michael O. Mensah. “Decoupling Crisis Response from Policing—A Step Toward Equitable Psychiatric Emergency Services.” The New England Journal of Medicine, (May 2021): 1769-1773. The authors recommend shifting the obligation of mental health emergency response from law enforcement to clinical teams in order to advance parity and outcomes for all patients, and particularly for Black patients. They argue that
unarmed clinicians must lead crisis response teams, given that no amount of training for police in de-escalation and bias can reverse a history of racism.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 History   Behavioral Health Civilian Response Team Reducing police response CM     Scholarly
Andrew Flamang 911 Emergency Services 2017 Andre Flamang. 911 Emergency Services. Harvard Business Review, (Sept/Oct 2017). https://www.bridgespan.org/911-emergency-services This report describes the history of 911 and emergency medical services (EMS) in the U.S. It briefly describes the the challenges that came before EMS was widespread, such as the lack of trauma centers and of medical care in
ambulances. The report also describes regional efforts to create an EMS system that could save more lives. With the implementation of 911, growth of EMS, and funding from foundations and the government, nearly all Americans now have access
to emergency services.
911 History Call Handling Operations Governance Health care continuum Budget   CM     Resource
Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, and Leah Pope Behavioral Health Crisis Alternatives: Shifting from Police to Community Responses 2020 Jackson Beck, Melissa Reuland, and Leah Pope. Behavioral Health Crisis Alternatives: Shifting from Police to Community Responses. Vera Institute of Justice, 2020. https://www.vera.org/behavioral-health-crisis-alternatives This report explains the problems encountered when police respond to mental health calls and other public health and social problems. It gives an overview of alternative crisis response models and examines initiatives in three
communities in particular: Eugene, OR; Olympia, WA; and Phoenix, AZ. The report also provides suggestions for communities to consider when implementing alternative response programs.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations Behavioral Health Reducing police response Civilian Response Team CM     Resource
Mimi Kim et al. A Checklist for Assessing Mental Health Response Models 2021 Mimi Kim, Megyung Chung, Shira Hassan, and Andrea Ritchie. A Checklist for Assessing Mental Health Response Models. 2021.
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5ee39ec764dbd7179cf1243c/t/60bf9f520ff8131af61f8883/1623170898488/Checklist.pdf
This toolkit provides a series of questions for program organizers to consider when assessing proposals for mental health crisis response. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the report “Defund the Police, Invest in Community
Care: A Guide to Alternative Mental Health Responses.” Questions cover topics such as 911 dispatch, alternative hotlines, governance, response, and program evaluations.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations Governance Behavioral Health 988-211-311 Reducing police response CM     Resource
Mental Health America Strength in Communities: 2021 Bebe Moore Campbell National Minority Mental Health Awareness Month Toolkit 2021 Mental Health America. Strength in Communities: 2021 Bebe Moore Campbell National Minority Mental Health Awareness Month Toolkit. 2021.https://mhanational.org/sites/default/files/BIPOC-MHM-Toolkit-2021_Final_03_0.pdf This toolkit examines community-developed systems of support created to fill gaps within mainstream healthcare systems. These systems may overlook cultural and historical factors that impede BIPOC and QTBIPOC mental health. The toolkit
explores three topic areas: community care, self-directed care, and culturally-based practices.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Health care continuum Behavioral Health Reducing police response CM     Resource
Danna Mauch and Elise Ressa Report on Pediatric Behavioral Health Urgent Care 2019 Danna Mauch and Elise Ressa. Report on Pediatric Behavioral Health Urgent Care. Children’s Mental Health Campaign. 2019.
https://childrensmentalhealthcampaign.org/sites/default/files/Pediatric%20Behavioral%20Health%20Urgent%20Care%202nd%20Ed._0.pdf
This report provides background information and an overview of the state of child and adolescent behavioral healthcare in Massachusetts. There is no defined “Behavioral Health Urgent Care” for those who need it in Massachusetts.
Problems arising from this circumstance include long wait times, insufficient care, and strains on emergency departments. This report discusses studies on urgent care and the potential benefits of behavioral health urgent care and provides
recommendations on implementation.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Behavioral Health Health care continuum CM     Resource
Committee on Psychiatry and the Community for the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry Roadmap to the Ideal Crisis System: Essential Elements, Measurable Standards and Best Practices for Behavioral Health Crisis Response 2021 Committee on Psychiatry and the Community for the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. Roadmap to the Ideal Crisis System: Essential Elements, Measurable Standards and Best Practices for Behavioral Health Crisis Response. National
Council for Behavioral Health, (March 2021). https://www.thenationalcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/031121_GAP_Crisis-Report_Final.pdf?daf=375ateTbd56
This report describes issues with the behavioral health crisis system in the U.S., namely that there isn’t a system but rather a set of different services (from law enforcement and emergency departments) that aren’t designed to
adequately meet behavioral health needs. It mentions positive changes such as the 988 implementation. This report is designed to be a guide for jurisdictions looking to create behavioral health systems, evaluate their current capacities,
and implement innovative structures and services that move towards an ideal crisis response system.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) 911 Hotline Alternatives Behavioral Health 988-211-311 Health care continuum CM     Resource
Cat Brooks and James Burch Oakland is Reimagining Public Safety. The Defund Police Coalition Responds To Reimagining Public Safety Task Force Final Recommendations 2021 Cat Brooks and James Burch. Oakland is Reimagining Public Safety. The Defund Police Coalition Responds To Reimagining Public Safety Task Force Final Recommendations. 2021.
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55de3d9fe4b00eccbe4dcd5f/t/60469654a881380ff898a9ad/1615238748044/APTP_Defund-Coalition_Report_03_08+FINAL+2+%28small%29.pdf
This report explains the recommendations the Oakland, CA, Defund Police Coalition supports and doesn’t support and why. It also reviews potential funding to pay for changes in new community safety initiatives. Oakland, CA, Police
Department calls for service data is analyzed and grassroots work on community safety are highlighted.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Data Research & KPIs Reducing police response Budget Police reform CM     Resource
The Defund Oakland Police Coalition Refund, Restore, Reimagine: Defund Police Coalition Priority Recommendations from the Reimagining Public Safety Task Force 2021 The Defund Oakland Police Coalition. Refund, Restore, Reimagine: Defund Police Coalition Priority Recommendations from the Reimagining Public Safety Task Force. 2021.
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55de3d9fe4b00eccbe4dcd5f/t/6091a2c9aa25e510dd2718ee/1620157135048/DefundOPD+Priority+Recommendations+Cheat+Sheet+5-4-21+%28small%29.pdf
This factsheet highlights the recommendations of the Reimagining Public Safety Task Force that the Defund Oakland Police Coalition supports and believes should be implemented immediately or very soon. Recommendations include changes to
funding, dispatch standards, and alternative hotlines. Other recommendations include police reform, creation of civilian response teams, and changes in outreach to homeless populations.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Call Handling Operations 911 Hotline Alternatives Reducing police response Unhoused population Civilian Response Team CM     Resource
Leah Wang and Katie Quandt Building exits off the highway to mass incarceration: Diversion programs explained 2021 Leah Wang and Katie Quandt. Building exits off the highway to mass incarceration: Diversion programs explained. Prison Policy Initiative, July 2021. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/diversion.html This report provides a general overview of diversion and alternative-to-incarceration programs, and key differences in how they might alleviate or complicate someone’s experience going through the criminal justice system. Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Reducing police response Police reform Budget CM     Resource
Kim Rigden Stress Management: Stress and the 911 Dispatcher: AEDR Journal 2017 Rigden, Kim. “Stress Management: Stress and the 911 Dispatcher: AEDR Journal.” Stress Management: Stress and the 911 Dispatcher | AEDR Journal, December 19,
2017. https://www.aedrjournal.org/stress-management-stress-and-the-911-dispatcher.
This article discusses the various aspects of the  9-1-1 call center environment that results in high stress levels within 9-1-1 dispatchers. This stress can be attributed to many things, but usually centers around performing
emotional labor, processing their own trauma from receiving calls, and the buildup on stress over time. As a result, the author suggests investing in self care, using the STRESS (Sensible Eating, Time to Enjoy Life, Rest and Relaxation,
Exercise and Education, Social Support of Family, Colleagues and Friends, Satisfying Expression of Self and Spirituality) acronym. 
PST Professionalism and Supports     Behavioral Health Call taker support   OF     Scholarly
Erik C. Cerbulis Job Attitudes of 911 Professionals: A Case Study of Turnover Intentions and Concerns Among Local Governments Throughout Central Florida 2001 “Cerbulis, Erik C.. “”Job Attitudes of 911 Professionals: A Case Study of Turnover Intentions and Concerns Among Local Governments Throughout
Central Florida””; (2001). HIM 1990-2015. 225. https://stars.library.ucf.edu/honorstheses1990-2015/225″
The results of a case study indicated that 911 professionals, regardless of position, show a high satisfaction for their jobs despite problems that may exist. It is necessary for both managers and supervisors to show appreciation
towards their employees, highlighting positive actions rather than just negative actions. In addition, agencies have made a concerted effort to increase starting pay for new-hires, yet have not adjusted veteran employee pay rates
accordingly. Other areas of focus by management should be training programs, hiring practices, and advancement opportunities for qualified employees.
PST Professionalism and Supports     Call taker support     OF     Scholarly
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook 2021 “”Home : Occupational Outlook Handbook.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 15, 2021.
https://www.bls.gov/ooh/.”
The Occupational Outlook Handbook from  the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics helps you discover information about hundreds of  occupations. With its detailed occupational profiles, the Occupational Outlook Handbook provides
information about typical education, pay, what workers do, the outlook for the occupation  in the future, and more.
PST Professionalism and Supports           OF     Resource
Labor Relations Information System Answering Calls For 16 Hours? Staffing Issues, Mandatory Overtime Stresses County’s 911 Dispatch Cente 2019 “”Answering Calls for 16 Hours? Staffing Issues, Mandatory Overtime Stresses County's 911 Dispatch Center.” Labor Relations Information
System, July 9, 2019. https://lris.com/2019/07/09/answering-calls-for-16-hours-staffing-issues-mandatory-overtime-stresses-countys-911-
dispatch-center/.”
This article discusses the long term issues with having a lack of call dispatchers. This usually manifests in long overtime shifts, which leads to burnout and emotional fatigue. Overtime is to be expected, but due to the nature of the
job, steps must be taken to ensure the emotional health of dispatchers and proper compensation is issued. 
PST Professionalism and Supports     Behavioral Health Call taker support   OF     Scholarly
CritiCall Team How Much Does It Cost to Train a Dispatcher 2020 “CritiCall. “How Much Does It Cost to Train a Dispatcher? " Criticall 911.” CritiCall 911 Dispatcher & Emergency Calltaker Testing Software,
October 19, 2020. https://criticall911.com/how-much-does-it-cost-to-train-a-dispatcher/.”
This post calculates the total cost of training a new 9-1-1 dispatchers. Taking into account  the payment of the trainer, trainee, overtime costs, and other miscellaneous costs, the total will come out to be $52,815. PST Professionalism and Supports     Budget     OF     Scholarly
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics “43-5031 Public Safety Telecommunicators 2021 “U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. “43-5031 Public Safety Telecommunicators.” March 31, 2021.
https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes435031.htm. See also U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. “43-0000 Office and Administrative Support
Occupations (Major Group)” https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes435031.htm (which includes Public Safety Telecommunicators an office and
administrative support occupation).”
This page lists the qualifications, job description, expected pay, employment distribution, and a number of other parameters for the public safety telecommunicator occupation. PST Professionalism and Supports Governance         OF     Resource
Heidi Kevoe-Feldman and Anita Pomerantz Critical timing of actions for transferring 911 calls in a wireless call center 2018 Kevoe-Feldman, Heidi, and Anita Pomerantz. “Critical timing of actions for transferring 911 calls in a wireless call center.” Discourse Studies 20, no. 4 (2018): 488-505. The analysis in this article considers how dispatchers in a 911 wireless call center direct callers’ orientations from one possible trajectory of action (e.g. moving to close) to keeping the caller engaged and prepared to speak with a
second dispatcher. They describe how dispatchers deploy two distinct actions, a directing action and an informing action, timed at a precise moment to execute successful transfers. The analysis presents largely unexplored features of the
call transfer environment, including dispatchers’ management of callers’ expectations and how the transfer phase contributes to a reshaping of the overall structural organization of a 911 call.
PST Professionalism and Supports Call Handling Operations   Call taker procedures     OF     Scholarly
Benjamin Trachik, Madeline Marks, Clint Bowers, Greg Scott, Chris Olola, Isabel Gardett Is Dispatching to a Traffic Accident as Stressful as Being in One? Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Occupational Burnout in 911 Emergency Dispatchers 2015 “Trachik, B., Marks, M., Bowers, C., Scott, G., Olola, C., and Gardett, I.(2015). "Is Dispatching to a Traffic Accident as Stressful as Being in One?
Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Occupational Burnout in 911 Emergency Dispatchers.” Annals of Emergency Dispatch &
Response, 3(1).”
This paper reports on a study taking an initial step to investigate rates of Acute Stress Disorder, Secondary Traumatic Stress and Occupational Burnout. 205 emergency dispatchers completed a survey while considering their occupational
experiences and recent dispatch call history. Although the results of this study are exploratory, rates of these three outcomes exceeded that of the general population and were related to several job-specific factors that could potentially
be modified to reduce dispatcher stress. Additional emergency call specific factors were also examined to uncover the potential contribution to negative stress-related outcomes.
Data Research & KPIs PST Professionalism and Supports   Call taker support Behavioral Health   OF     Scholarly
Jay R. Shively Emergency (911) dispatcher decision making: Ecological display development. 1995 Shively, R. Jay. “Emergency (911) dispatcher decision making: Ecological display development”; In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 506-510. Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE
Publications, 1995.
Emergency dispatchers must make complex life or death decisions under extreme time pressure. Using Ecological Task Analysis (ETA), a technique normally applied to aerospace human factors problems, a new display was designed that would
better assist their decision making task. The major design constraints were identified to be the beat number and priority of incidents, available units, and the spatial relationship of the those units to the incident. Using these and other
less formal factors, a GUI interface was designed and an evaluation was conducted at the Richmond, CA police dispatch center. 
PST Professionalism and Supports Data Research & KPIs   Call taker procedures     OF     Scholarly
Gorkem Sariyer, Mustafa Gokalp Ataman, Serhat Akay, Turhan Sofuogia, and Zeyneb Sofuogia An analysis of Emergency Medical Services demand: Time of day, day of the week, and location in the city 2017 “Sariyer, Gorkem, Mustafa Gokalp Ataman, Serhat Akay, Turhan Sofuoglu, and Zeynep Sofuoglu. “”An analysis of Emergency Medical Services
demand: Time of day, day of the week, and location in the city.”” Turkish journal of emergency medicine 17, no. 2 (2017): 42-47.”
The analyses showed that demand for EMS varied within different time periods of day, and according to day of the week. For the night period, demand was higher at the weekend compared to weekdays, whereas for daytime hours, demand was
higher during the week. For weekdays, a statistically significant relation was observed between the call distribution of morning and evening periods. It was also observed that the percentage of demand changed according to
location. 
Data Research & KPIs Call Handling Operations   Call taker procedures     OF     Scholarly
Balakrishan S. Manoj and Alexandra Hubenko Baker Communication challenges in emergency response 2007 “Manoj, Balakrishan S., and Alexandra Hubenko Baker. "Communication challenges in emergency response." Communications of the ACM 50,
no. 3 (2007): 51-53.”
The communication challenges in emergency response go far beyond simple interoperability issues. Based on the research, practical observation of first responder exercises and drills, and workshop discussions, this paper identified
three categories of communication challenges: technological, sociological, and organizational. These three major areas are key to developing and maintaining healthy and effective disaster communication systems. 
Call Handling Operations     Call taker support Call taker procedures   OF     Scholarly
Jessica L Soria Deselms 911, What’s My Emergency? Emotional Labor, Work-Related Rumination, and Strain Outcomes in Emergency Medical Dispatchers. 2016 “Deselms, Jessica L. 911, What’s My Emergency? Emotional Labor, Work-Related Rumination, and Strain Outcomes in Emergency Medical
Dispatchers. Minnesota State University, Mankato, 2016. https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/etds/632/”
The work of Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs) is filled with a variety of stressors, including “emotional labor.” Despite research on emotional labor, few studies have quantitatively examined this construct within EMDs. Compared to
the plethora of emotional labor literature that focuses on the display of positive emotions, EMDs are required to suppress or neutralize any negative reactions they may experience. Hence, this study was concerned with the further
examination of emotional labor, physical health outcomes, burnout, and job satisfaction in a unique population.
PST Professionalism and Supports Data Research & KPIs   Call taker support     OF     Scholarly
Hendrika Meishchke, Ian Painter, Michelle Lilly, Randal Beaton, Debra Revere, Becca Calhoun, and J. Baseman Hendrika Meishchke, Ian Painter, Michelle Lilly, Randal Beaton, Debra Revere, Becca Calhoun, and J. Baseman 2015 “Meischke, Hendrika, Ian Painter, Michelle Lilly, Randal Beaton, Debra Revere, Becca Calhoun, and J. Baseman. "An exploration of sources,
symptoms and buffers of occupational stress in 9-1-1 emergency call centers." Ann Emerg Dispatch Response 3, no. 2 (2015): 28-35.”
This is one of the first studies to explore the inter-relationships among job stressors, potential risk and protective factors, and symptoms of stress in 9-1-1 telecommunicators. Overcommitment was positively associated with higher
stress scores while mindfulness—the ability to pay attention to, recognize, and process one’s experiences and emotions without judgment and in the moment—was negatively associated with higher symptoms of stress scores after all covariates
were considered. Findings suggest that the associations between stress, overcommitment and mindfulness provide guidance regarding the benefits of providing mindfulness-based interventions to assist this workforce in managing stress.
Data Research & KPIs PST Professionalism and Supports   Behavioral Health Call taker support   OF     Scholarly
Hollywood, John S., and Zev Winkelman Improving Information-Sharing Across Law Enforcement: Why Can’t We Know? 2015 Hollywood, John S., and Zev Winkelman. “Improving Information-Sharing Across Law Enforcement: Why Can’t We Know?” In Improving Information-Sharing Across Law Enforcement: Why Can’t We Know?, 1-32. RAND Corporation, 2015.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt19rmdmz.1
This report draws from previous research to survey the history of information technology used within emergency response systems over time and outlines related issues, recommendations, and progress indicators. The main issues outlined
include the lack of standards development and usage, misunderstandings and knowledge gaps between practitioners and developers, and lack of incentives and enforcement of information sharing.
Governance     information sharing interaction between law enforcement agencies   OF     Scholarly
James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley  Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services 2014 James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley. “Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services.” Journal of Law,
Technology, & the Internet. Vol. 5. 2014. https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1067&context=jolti
This article argues that there are many issues with the current sharing of regulatory power under a federal-state NG911 funding arrangement. The authors argue that the federal government must take action to ensure a timely and
efficient implementation of NG911, including that Congress must allow states to collect more 911 funds and receive more federal 911 grant funds by establishing an enforceable minimum floor of state NG911 services and impose minimum
technical and performance standards.
Governance Call Handling Operations NG911 budget   OF     Scholarly
Linda K. Moore Emergency Communications: The Future of 911 2010 Linda K. Moore. “Emergency Communications: The Future of 911.” The Congressional Research Service, 2010. 
 https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CKAvX1lHK2wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=911+emergency+call+center+infrastructure&ots=5-4GEaqLFn&sig=sEsBqDbEb-B795k9dWnWkD3utGU#v=onepage&q&f=false
This report provides a summary of 911 legislation and policy between 1999 and 2008, a time period in which NG911 became increasingly relevant as a result of new technological advances. Some of the legislation highlighted includes: The
Enhance Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-494.) which addressed issues of compliance, coverage in rural areas, and the use of fees levied by states and localities to cover rising administrative costs and the Net 911 Improvement Act of 2008 (P.L.
110-298.) This report also outlines recommendations for improving funding to PSAPS, the potential role of the Department of Homeland Security, and future policy goals related to NG911. 
Governance 911 History   NG911 911 system legislation OF     Scholarly
Steven C. Sharpe 9-1-1 Leadership: Perceptions of Evidence-Based Quality Improvement 2018 Steven C. Sharpe. “9-1-1 Leadership: Perceptions of Evidence-Based Quality Improvement.” St. John Fischer College Digital Publications, 2018. https://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1356&context=education_etd This dissertation examines how New York PSAP leaders can support effective implementation of quality improvement programs in light of the gaps in legislation. Challenges to quality improvement that were identified include time,
staffing, and funding. Recommendations to address these issues include focused efforts on securing buy-in from stakeholders, building trust as leaders, and the use of local data to support decision-making processes.
Governance     quality improvement budget   OF     Scholarly
James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services 2014 James E. Holloway, Elaine Seeman, and James Kleckley. “Federalism in the Financing of 911 Emergency Call Services: The Nature of the Federal-State Funding Arrangement to Finance Next Generation (NG) 911 Services.” Journal of Law,
Technology, & the Internet. Vol. 5. 2014. https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1067&context=jolti
This article argues that there are many issues with the current sharing of regulatory power under a federal-state NG911 funding arrangement. The authors argue that the federal government must take action to ensure a timely and
efficient implementation of NG911, including that Congress must allow states to collect more 911 funds and receive more federal 911 grant funds by establishing an enforceable minimum floor of state NG911 services and impose minimum
technical and performance standards.
Governance     NG911 Budget   OF     Scholarly
Federal Communications Commission Notice of Inquiry – 911 Fee Diversion 2020 O’ Rielly, and Rosenworcel. “FCC Seeks to Combat 911 Fee Diversion.” Federal Communications Commission, Federal Communications Commission, 4 Nov. 2020, https://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-seeks-combat-911-fee-diversion.  This Notice of Inquiry from the Federal Communications Commission seeks to comment on the effects of the diversion of funding of 911 and E911 services to non-911 purposes, which they deem to “directly undermine the public safety
communications system.” This document outlines ways to encourage states to pass legislation that would end 911 fee diversion, including placing restrictions from federal grant funding to states that practice fee diversion. The document
also notes the Commission’s legal authority to support such measures.
Data Research & KPIs Governance   E911 budget federal involvement OF     Resource
Susan Caroline Young Factors Affecting the Adoption of New Technology: the Case of Government 311 Call Centers 2015 Susan Carolina Young. “Factors Affecting the Adoption of New Technology: the Case of Government 311 Call Centers.” PhD Diss., (Florida International University, 2015.)
https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3015&context=etd
Using an exploratory research approach, this dissertation aims to identify the factors involved in municipal governments’ decisions to, or not to, adopt 311 call centers. Their findings suggest that the most significant factors include
managerial support, financial constraints, organizational responsiveness, and technological challenges. Barriers to adoption include lack of demand from citizens, startup costs, and annual operating costs.
Data Research & KPIs Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Governance 988-211-311 Call taker procedures Budget OF     Scholarly
Kara Rosenberg Cain Chapter 17 to the Rescue: Voice Over Internet Protocol to Aid the Health of the 911 Emergency Fund 2009 Kara Rosenberg Cain. “Chapter 17 to the Rescue: Voice Over Internet Protocol to Aid the Health of the 911 Emergency Fund.” University of the Pacific Scholarly Commons, 2009.
https://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1066&context=greensheet
“This journal discusses how the introduction of VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technology necessitated an increase in 911 funding. In California, legislators passed S.B. 1040, which declared that “”The furnishing of emergency
telephone service is in the public interest and should be supported fairly and equitably by every telephone corporation and every provider
 of telephone quality communication…”” This law addresses two major concerns: first, the growing inequity that stems from VoIP providers not being mandated to contribute to the 911 fund and second, it addresses potential liability
stemming from the previous law’s definition of “”toll telephone service.”””
Governance Call Handling Operations   budget limitations of current legislation   OF     Scholarly
Chance, E., Daley, A., Naifeh, V., et al. Summary of the Legal and Policy Landscape Surrounding Accessibility and 911 2015 Chance, E., Daley, A., Naifeh, V., et al. “Summary of the Legal and Policy Landscape Surrounding Accessibility and 911. Samuelson-Glushko Technology Law & Policy Clinic, 2015.
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2601042
This white paper describes the regulatory framework in place by the Federal Communications Commission relating to the provisioning of 911 services for the deaf, hard of hearing, and speech disabled communities in Colorado as of 2015.
Under the ADA, the Department of Justice considered requiring PSAPs to upgrade their technology per Title II, in order to ensure accessibility to emergency services. States such as Maine and Vermont have mandated these upgrades and have
proven the feasibility of their implementation.
Governance     accessibility technology feasibility OF     Resource
Randy Ross Closing the 911 Funding Gap: Increasing Revenues for 911 Emergency Dispatch Centers 2020 Randy Ross. “Closing the 911 Funding Gap: Increasing Revenues for 911 Emergency Dispatch Centers. Certified Public Manager Applied Research 1, (1). https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/cpmar/vol1/iss1/4 This paper addresses the 911 service funding gap, explaining that the revenue used to fund 911 services consists almost entirely of fees and surcharges on wireline, wireless, and VoIP telephone lines. Despite generating billions of
dollars annually, 911 service revenues still typically fall short of expected costs. The author urges the federal government to update the current funding framework, give additional regulatory power to the states, and to make more grant
funding available.
Governance     budget funding shortage   OF     Scholarly
Erwin A. Blackstone, Andrew J. Buck, and Simon Hakim The Economics of Emergency Response 2007 Erwin A. Blackstone, Andrew J. Buck, and Simon Hakim. “The Economics of Emergency Response.” Springer 40, (4). 2007. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25474342 This journal discusses strategies to decrease the 911 services funding shortage. As of 2007, the federal first responder funding was estimated to be $98 billion below the minimum required level for the period of 2005-2010. This
shortfall can be addressed by eliminating non-public good services, initiating public-private partnerships, and contracting out other public services.
Governance     funding shortage     OF     Scholarly
Gerald Reardon, Nikki Cassingham, Daniel Martinez  Emergency Communications Governance Guide for State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial Officials . 2018 “”Emergency Communications Governance Guide for State, Local …” Accessed October 27, 2021.
https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/2018_ECD_SLTT_Governance_Guide_02132019_FINAL_508C.pdf”
This Governance Guide provides public safety professionals, at all levels of government and disciplines, tools to establish and sustain effective emergency communications governance. It describesfunctional areas  applicable to the
SLTT audience centered on interoperability coordination. The Governance Guide also strives to highlight tribal emergency communications best practices, lessons learned, capabilities, challenges, and partnerships while considering unique
emergency management structures of federally recognized tribes. 
Data Research & KPIs Governance         OF     Resource
National 911 Program Governance 2021 “Governance.” 911.gov. Accessed October 29, 2021. https://www.911.gov/documents_tools/Governance.html. This is the landing page for all the documents and tools related to governance created by the National 911 Program Governance     Call taker procedures Call taker support   OF     Resource
Monroe County Monroe County 911 ND “”Monroe County 911.” Monroe County, IL. Accessed October 29, 2021.
https://monroecountyil.gov/departments/monroe-county-911/”
This is a landing page for documents related to Monroe County, IL’s 911 system Governance           OF     Resource
Margaret Harding McGill Congress decimates 911’s digital upgrade 2021 Margaret Harding McGill. Congress decimates 911’s digital upgrade. Axios, November 2021. https://www.axios.com/congress-decimates-911s-digital-upgrade-845c5730-d1b2-4478-b32d-9d980793570d.html The potentially life-saving ability for people to send texts, pictures or videos to 911 centers, and for centers to seamlessly share data with each other, remains out of reach for many of the country’s 6,000 centers. Public safety
officials fear the nation’s 911 centers will continue to languish in the analog era, after legislators slashed proposed funding for a digital makeover in their social spending bill. The House Energy & Commerce Committee advanced a
proposal that would have spent $10 billion on next-generation 911 centers in September, but that funding was reduced to $470 million for deployment in the final House version of the Build Back Better Act.
Governance Technology   Budget Accessibility   CM     Resource
All Clear Foundation All Clear Foundation website   https://allclearfoundation.org In 2019, All Clear Foundation was founded by Global Medical Response as an autonomous public charity designed to serve and benefit the national Emergency Responder community. As one of the largest employers of Public Safety personnel
in the U.S., GMR believes it has a duty to support the overall wellness of all Responders nationally. All Clear Foundation is a 501c3 public charity whose mission is to improve the overall wellbeing and longevity of those who serve
communities in times of need. They believe that healthy Emergency Responders contribute to healthier communities.
PST Professionalism and Supports Call taker support Behavioral Health CM     Resource
All Clear Foundation Peer-to-Peer App for First Responders   https://responderrel8.com From the All Clear Foundation, this confidential app provides Emergency Workers a safe place to connect and chat anonymously with each other. Available 24/7, ResponderRel8 provides a platform for Emergency Responders and Frontline
Medical Workers to connect with others who have similar lived experience, normalizing the stressors and challenges of the job while increasing connection.
PST Professionalism and Supports Technology   Behavioral Health Call taker support CM     Resource
Wayne State University Michigan Statewide Emergency Dispatch Survey 2021 Wayne State University, School of Social Work, Center for Behavioral Health and Justice. Michigan Statewide Emergency Dispatch Survey. 2020.
https://behaviorhealthjustice.wayne.edu/crisis-response/dispatch-survey-dec21
In 2021, the CBHJ administered an online survey to Public Service Telecommunicators (PSTs) to understand the state’s emergency dispatch system. 74% reported that their Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) receives calls from crisis
lines. Only 30% of respondents said they will refer callers to behavioral health crisis lines. 19 respondents shared concerns of liability for transferring calls to behavioral health crisis lines. Some recommendations are: Behavioral
health & criminal/legal collaborations should include dispatch to inform initiatives such as CIT, co-response, and mobile crisis units and funding pilot programs that embed crisis specialists, cross-train, and route calls from 911 to
crisis lines.
Call Handling Operations Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Behavioral Health Call taker procedures Civilian Response Team CM     Resource
David Eichenthal 211/311: Is There a Case for Consolidation or Collaboration? 2010 David Eichenthal. 211/311: Is There a Case for Consolidation or Collaboration?
2010. https://icma.org/sites/default/files/71_AUGUST%202010%20·%20VOLUME%2092%20·%20NUMBER%207.pdf 
Local governments across North America are moving forward with the implementation of 311 systems that allow residents to access information and nonemergency services with one call. Still, 311 systems remain the exception, not the rule,
in all but the largest communities in the United States. By comparison, 211 systems—which provide access to information and referrals (I&R) in response to social service needs—are common. There is a strong argument for consolidation or
collaboration of the now separate 311 and 211 systems. Collaborations that allow 311 and 211 data to be shared could lead to a clearer and more comprehensive understanding of a locality’s needs.
911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Caller protocol CM     Resource
Sonia Boyum, Matthew W. Kreuter, Amy McQueen, Tess Thompson, and Regina Greer Getting help from 2-1-1: A statewide study of referral outcomes 2016 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01488376.2015.1109576 This longitudinal study followed a random sample of 211 callers in Missouri to determine the results of the referrals they received. One month after calling 211, most remembered receiving (93%), tried contacting (91%), and reached
(82%) at least one referral they received. Far fewer (36%) received assistance from the referral, ranging from 17% for housing assistance to 67% for food assistance. Callers receiving assistance were much more likely than those not
receiving assistance to report at the one-month follow-up that their problem had been resolved. Future research could elucidate how 2-1-1 callers resolve problems; it could also find ways to improve outcomes for the most disadvantaged
2-1-1 callers.
911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Unhoused population CM     Resource
Matthew Kreuter, Rachel Garg, Tess Thompson, Amy McQueen, Irum Javed, Balaji Golla, Charlene Caburnay, and Regina Greer Assessing The Capacity Of Local Social Services Agencies To Respond To Referrals From Health Care Providers 2020 Matthew Kreuter, Rachel Garg, Tess Thompson, Amy McQueen, Irum Javed, Balaji Golla, Charlene Caburnay, and Regina Greer. Assessing The Capacity Of Local Social
Services Agencies To Respond To Referrals From Health Care Providers. Health Affairs, 39 (4). 2020. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01256
The researchers examined 711,613 requests related to fifty different social needs received from callers to 211 helplines in seven states during 2018. Their analyses focused on the proportion of requests for which referrals could not be
made because of low capacity in the social services system. They examined the extent to which the capacity of this system varied by type of social need, ZIP code, and time of year, and classified social needs in a new typology based on
prevalence and system capacity. It is clear from the results, that health care’s current screening and referral approach is appropriate for some social needs but not others.
911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Unhoused population CM     Resource
Greg Bloom Averting Tragedy of the Resource Directory Anti-Commons: A Practical Approach to Open Data Infrastructure for Health, Human, and Social Services 2021 Greg Bloom. Averting Tragedy of the Resource
Directory Anti-Commons: A Practical Approach to Open Data Infrastructure for Health, Human, and Social Services. 2021. The Cambridge Handbook of Commons Research Innovations, 45-54. Cambridge Law Handbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108938617.007.
This paper outlines a set of strategic interventions pursued through the Open Referral Initiative – a community of practice that has developed data exchange standards, open source tools, and pilot projects through which multiple
stakeholders experiment with new methods of sharing resource information as open data. The paper’s final section outlines a set of institutional designs that can hypothetically sustain the provision of trustworthy open resource data as a
public good.
Data Research & KPIs   Accessibility Behavioral Health CM     Resource
CEO County of Los Angeles Alternative Crisis Response (ACR) 2020 CEO County of Los Angeles. Alternative Crisis Response (ACR). County of Los Angeles. 2020. https://ceo.lacounty.gov/ati/alternative-crisis-response/ The forthcoming 9-8-8 number for behavioral health emergency response promises to elevate behavioral health crisis/emergency services, but there remains much work to be done to add needed capacity of these services, improve the
coordination of crisis calls, field responses, and crisis facility care, and ensure that the 9-8-8 system is connected to and appropriately coordinated with the 9-1-1 system, as needed. Critically, this work needs to explicitly address how
current system gaps have resulted in disproportionate impacts on communities of color and the LGBTQ community, including an over-representation of individuals with mental health and substance use needs from these communities ending up in
jails, on the street, and repeatedly hospitalized. The LA County Alternative Crisis Response (ACR) project, a collaboration between the Department of Mental Health and the Chief Executive Office’s Alternatives to Incarceration Initiative,
in partnership with law enforcement, fire/EMS, and other health and human services providers from around the county, is LA County’s attempt to thoughtfully address these goals as the full rollout of 9-8-8 in July 2022 draws closer.
911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Behavioral Health Unhoused population CM     Resource
TradeOffs Harm Reduction’s Road From Fringe to Federal Drug Policy 2022 TradeOffs. Harm Reduction’s Road From Fringe to Federal Drug Policy. 2022. https://tradeoffs.org/2022/01/27/harm-reduction-drugs-substance-use/ The overdose crisis in the U.S. is as deadly as it’s ever been. In response, the Biden administration is embracing a controversial strategy known as harm reduction, which seeks to keep drug users safe even as they continue using. The
TradeOffs team explore how harm reduction has become more mainstream and what kind of impact it can be expected to have on the overdose crisis.
Alternatives to First Responders (Police/EMS/Fire) Other   Behavioral Health Health care continuum Low-level crimes CM     Resource
TradeOffs Answering the Call, Part 1: America’s New Mental Health Crisis Line 2022 TradeOffs. Answering the Call, Part 1: America’s New Mental Health Crisis Line.
2022. https://tradeoffs.org/2022/02/03/988-mental-health-crisis-hotline/
Starting July 16, 2022, anyone in the U.S. experiencing a mental health crisis will be able to dial 988 for help. TradeOffs explores what it will take for this new nationwide hotline to meet the needs of millions of people struggling
with suicide, addiction and mental illness.
911 Hotline Alternatives   988-211-311 Behavioral Health Reducing police response CM     Resource

Help us Transform911.

The Health Lab strives to improve public health, its impacts, and how it is discussed. If you identify an area of our work that you believe misses a critical perspective or employs language that needs improvement, please contact us at transform911@uchicago.edu. We welcome your feedback.